a ball of hot, solid metals.
a layer of liquid metals that surrounds the inner core. Temperature and pressure are lower here, allowing it to be a liquid.
Earth's thickest layer, made of hot rock.
Thin layer of cool rock surrounding Earth's surface.
Earth's crust and the top part of the mantle make this.Greek for stone/rock. Most rigid layer.
layer of hot, soft rock rock in upper mantle. Greek for weak.
The lithosphere is made up of these large and small slabs of rock.
Earth's contnients were once joined, but over time moved apart because of this.
Greek for all lands. This was the super continent once made up of all the continents.
huge underwater mountain ridges.
energy transfer via movement of material.
the sinking and rising motion of rock in the asthenosphere.
theory of plate tectonics
This theory states that Earth's lithosphere is made up of huge plates that move over the surface of Earth.
occurs where plates move apart. usually found in ocean.
occurs where plates push together.
occurs where plates scrape past each other.
a gap where molten material rises to build new crust.
when Earth's poles switch direction, so north is south and south is north.
where heated rock rises in cloumns from the mantle.
when one plate sinks beneath another.
occurs where two plates carrying continental crust push together.
occurs where one plate with oceanic crust subducts benath another with oceanic crust.
occurs when ocean crust sinks beneath continental crust.
a fracture in Earth's lithosphere where two rocks push together.
force exerted when an object presses on, pulls on, or pushes against another object.
shaking of ground caused sudden movement of large blocks of rock along a fault.
how energy of an earthquake travels.
the point underground where rocks first began to move.
the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus.
an instrument used to constantly record ground movements.
a smaller earthquake following the more powerful one in the same area.
a process in which shaking causes soil to act like a liquid.
a water wave triggered by an earthquake, volcanic eruption, or land slide. can rise more than the height of a 20-story building.