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Neutrality Acts

...passed in 1935, 36 & 37; declared that the US would withhold weapons & loans from all nations at war; US citizens travel on ships of nations at war at their own risk

"cash and carry"

passed in 1935; states that any sale of goods to nations at war was to be strictly on a cash and carry basis

totalitarism

form of government in which the power to rule embraces all matters of human concern

Lend-Lease Act

...passed in 1941; allowed the U.S. to sell or lend war materials to "any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the U.S."

Arsenal of Democracy

...US would supply arms to countries who were fighting for freedom

Atlantic Charter

...1941; Roosevelt & Churchill met on battleships and agreed on priciples for lasting peace and establishing free governments in the world

Pearl Harbor

...Hawaii; surprise aerial attack by the Japanese on 12/7/41; US then declared war on Japan

island hopping

...an archipelago is taken over one island at a time

Operation Overlord/D-Day

... aka. Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied western Europe during World War II

Holocaust

...1930's; Nazi Germans built concentration (slave labor) camps to isolate Jews from society; incredible human suffering; millions killed

Yalta Conference

...1945 in Crimea; Roosevelt, Churchill & Stalin agreed on postwar plans; SU entered war against Japan

Potsdam Conference

...1945; allied leaders warned Japan to surrender; suggested use of atomic bomb

Manhattan Project

...1943; a group of scientists from several countries began work on the top-secret atomic research program; primarily in Los Alamos, NM, under the direction of Dr. Robert Oppenheimer

Robert Oppenheimer

...physicist who let the American effort to build the first atomic bomb

Hiroshima & Nagasaki

...Japanese cities where atomic bombs were dropped in an attempt to end WWII with Japan

Homefront

...shortly after WWII McCarthyism and the Cold War emerged, causing conflict within American society

Rosie the Riveter

...slang term for all women who worked in wartime factories in the US

rationing

...Americans supported the war effort by limiting food, gasoline, and other necessities and luxuries

Japanese Internment

...more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were forced to leave their homes and move to Wartime Relocation camps

Executive Order 9066

...issued by President Roosevelt in 1942, establishings military zones for the imprisonment of Japanese Americans.

Korematsu v. US (1945)

...S.C. case that ruled that forcible relocation of Japanese Americans to Camps during WWII was legal; limited civil liberties

United Nations

...headquartered in NYC; a forum of world leaders aimed at fighting world hunger, promoting education and solving world crises

Nuremburg Trials

...post WWII trials in which German government and military figures were tried for crimes commietted during the war

G.I. Bill (Servicmen's Readjustment Act)

...authorized billions of dollars to pay for veteran's benefits (e.g. college, medical, unemployment, loans)

Cold War

...the state of tension between the US and the Soviet Union after WWII

NATO

...North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance formed for mutual defense in 1949 under the North Atlantic Treaty, and now made up of 15 nations stretching from Canada to Turkey

Warsaw Pact

...an alliance with 7 Eastern European nations formed by the Soviets, opposing NATO

containment

...US policy aimed at limiting the expansion of communism

Truman Doctrine

...economic and military aid to Turkey and Greece; a major US foreign policy step away from isolation and neutrality

Marshall Plan

...eonomic aid program that enabled Western Europe to build prosperous economies; $13 billion sent between 1948-1952

Berlin Blockade/Airlift

...Soviets cut off all access to West Berlin by blockading the roads; in 1948 western powers airlifted food, clothing, coal, etc. to the city

Iron Curtain Speech

...Prime Minister Churchill cautioned the world against communist expansion

NSC 68

...National Security Council Report; 58-paged top secret policy paper issued by the US National Security Council on April 14, 1950, during Truman's presidency; involved a decision to make containment against global communist expansion a high priority

Eisenhower

...USRepublican President 1953-1961; commander of the Allied forces in Europe during WWII

Interstate Highway Act

...1956; provided funding for what became a 44,000-mile network of interstate highways

Korean War

...conflict over the future of the Korean peninsula, fought between 1950 & 1953 and ending in a stalemate

Sputnik

...Soviet satellite launched into orbit around the earth in 1957; spurred the space race

HUAC

...House Un-American Activities Committee formed in 1938 as a temporary investigative unit to look into communist activity in the US

McCarthyism

...an era of government investigation of the private lives of many in public service and in the entertainment industry for suspected communism

domino theory

...the idea, prevalent during the Vietnam War, that if one Asian nation became Communist, neighboring nations would as well

Rosenbergs

...Julius and Ethel: convicted and executed for treason in 1953 during the era of McCarthyism

baby boom

...the rapid growth in the population of the US between 1945 & 1964

surburbia

...home building surrounding major cities; grew rapidly in the 1960s

Levittown

...symbol of suburbanization; 17,000 tract houses built in 4 years

Fair Deal

...President Truman's legislative program aimed at promoting full employment, a higher minimum wage, greater unemployemnt compensation, and housing assistance

Brown v. Board of Education

...school segregation Supreme Court case that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson; ruled that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal and violate the 14th Amendment's equal protection clause

Jackie Robinson

...first professional African American baseball player; joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947

desegregation of military

an executive order was issued by President Truman to abolish racial discrimination in the US Armed Forces and eventually led to the end of segregation in the services

Little Rock 9

...in 1957 the governor of Alabama ordered the state's National Guard to prevent 9 African American students from attending a public high school in Little Rock

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