Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
warriors for the Islamic Faith
Mehmed the Conqueror
Captured Constantinople and opened a new chpater for Ottoman expansion. laid the foundation for a strong, centralized government and his army faced no real rival/
Suleyman the Magnificient
climaxed ottoman imperialism. conquered baghdad, added Tigris and Euphrates . made ottomans a naval power.
Safavid ruler. promoted Twelver Shiism. led his Quizelbash calvalry to drastic defeats.
Safavids v. Ottomans
locked in combat for hundreds of years. Ottomans feared the Safavids and their propaganda.
religion in the Safavid empire that was promoted by Shah Ismail. , Branch of Islam that stressed that there were twelve perfect religious leaders after Muhammad and that the twelfth went into hiding and would return someday; Shah Ismail spread this variety through me Safavid empire.
Shah Abbas the Great
moved capital; reformed government; encouraged trade; sought European help
Shiites v. Sunnis
-Shiites: rulers were legitamate only through direct bloodline with Muhammad.
-Sunnis- Rulers were picked based of of ability to lead.
brilliant general who laid the foundation for the Mughal Empire. Sought fame and fortune.
a Muslim dynasty founded by Baber that ruled India until 1857
known for religious tolerance. grandson of Babur who created a strong central government. created his own religion.
Administration of the Islamic Empires
- Trade and economies
- Social structure
- Administrative structure
social hierarchy-- / 1.sultan \
/ 2. gov. officials \
/ 3. Ghazis, military \
/ 4. everyone else \
Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus & Buddhists. it was religious tolerance
constructed during the rule of shah Jahan. it was a memorial for his wife.
The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries.(p. 526)