Science, vocab, Chapter 4, 7th grade, FRA

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Science, vocab, Chapter 4, 7th grade, FRA

diffusion

the movement of particles from an area where their concentration is high to an area that the concentration is low. This can occur across cell membranes or outside the cell. No energy needed for this to occur.

osmosis

the diffusion of water through the cell membrane.

phospholipid molecules

makes up the cell membrane they are small and some particles can pass through them.

passive transport

the diffusion of particles through the proteins goes from high concentration to low concentration with no energy needed. .

active transport

the movement of particles through proteins against the normal directions of diffusion. Particle go from low concentration to high use energy that comes from ATP

ATP

stores energy in a form that cells can use. Molecule that stores energy to fuel activities of the cell.

endocytosis

the cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it to form a vesicle. Can bring in other cells this way

exocytosis

vesicles formed at the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi complex and carry the particles to the cell membrane and out of the cell.

photosynthesis

plants can capture light energy from the sun and change it into food

pigment

are plant molecules that absorb the energy of light.

cholorphyll

the main pigment and gives plant their green color

Choloplasts

has cholorphyll

plant energy

change carbon dioxide and water into food

glucose

carbohydrate: energy used by plants that use to store energy

oxygen

is produced by photosynthesis

cellular respiration

use to obtain energy from food. uses oxygen. Food -glucose is broken down into CO2 and H20 and energy is released. eukaryotes_ takes place in mitochodria.

fermentation

does not use oxygen. To produce small amounts of atp and products from the partial breakdown of glucose. Can occue in muscles and produces lactic acid

lactic acid fermentation

in muscle causes muscle fatigue after strenous activity. occurs in animals and some types of fungi and bacteria

carbon dioxide and alcohol fermentation

fermentation that occurs in bacteria and yeast.

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