Digestive System

Created by dmgill 

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amylase

enzyme secreted by salivary glands and pancreas that breaks down starch into maltose ( a disaccharide)

peristalsis

the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along

ingestion

the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)

cardiac sphincter

located at the base of the esophagus and functions to prevent food materials from entering the esophagus from the stomach

pyloric sphincter

circular muscle that controls the movement of chyme from the stomach to the small intestines and prevents its backflow

pepsin

an enzyme produced in the stomach that splits proteins into peptones

rennin

important to infants because it curdles the milk they ingest, allowing a longer residence in the bowels and better absorption.

ulcer

an open sore or lesion in the skin or mucous membrane.

secretin

A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH (e.g., from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.

duodenum

first part of the small intestine

enterokinase

enzyme in the intestinal juice that converts inactive trypsinogen into active trypsin

trypsinogen

precursor of trypsin that is in the pancreas and is activated to trypsin in the small intestine

trypsin

enzyme that acts in the small intestine to break down protein chains into smaller chains of amino acids

erepsins

enzymes that complete protein digestion by converting small-chain peptides to amino acids.(secreted by pancreas and cells of small intestine; works in the lumen of the small intestine)

lipases

enzymes released from the pancreas that break down lipids into glycerol and fatty acids

bile

substance produced by the liver and released into the small intestine where it emulsifies fat and raises the pH of the chyme entering from the stomach

gall bladder

organ that stores bile

rectum

the lower part of the large intestine where feces are stored

villi

Small fingerlike projections on the walls of the small intestines that increase surface area

microvilli

Tiny hair-like projections of the cytoplasmic membrane located only in the small intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area.

gastrin

a digestive hormone secreted by the stomach lining; stimulates the secretion of fluid by gastric glands in the stomach

enterogastrone

For very fatty foods, the duodenum releases this hormone to slow down the release of chyme by the stomach. (Fats take longer to digest).

disaccharases

breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides in the small intestine

hydrochloric acid

produced by the stomach, kills bacteria, and converts pepsinogen into pepsin

mucus in stomach

secretion that protects the stomach cells from gastric juices

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