Circumstances or causes of a sudden acute episode of a chronic disease is called?
Which term is used to describe a new and secondary or additional problem that arises afetr the original disease is established?
If the data collected from the research process confirms the new treatment has increased effectiveness and is safe, it is called?
Evidence based research findings
Cell damage may be caused by exogenous sources such as?
Physical agents, mechanical damage, chemical toxins, microorganisms, nutritional deficits, imbalance of fluids
The inflammatory response is a non-specific response to?
Tissue injury resulting in redness, swelling, warmth, pain
Chemical mediators released during the inflammatory response are called?
Histamine, serotonin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes
Results directly from chemical mediators following a burn injury?
Vasodilatation, increased capillary permeability, chemotaxis, pain, fever, histamine release
A granuloma is best described as?
A nodular destructive mass associated with chronic inflammation or infection
What is the correct order in the inflammatory response after tissue injury?
Acute inflammation, release of chemical mediators, preparation for healing (either chronic inflammation or healing)
Systemic effects of severe inflammation include?
Mild fever (pyrexia), malaise, fatigue, headache, anorexia
Replacement of damaged tissue by similar functioning cells is called?
Replacement by connective tissue (scar or fibrous tissue formation)
Best description of granulation tissue or cells?
Highly vascular, moist and pink or red in color. Contains new capillary buds. It is fragile and easily broken down by microorganisms or stress on tissues.
Glucocorticoids are used to treat inflammation because they directly?
Decrease capillary permeability (stabilize the vascular system), block immune response, reduce leukocytes
Characteristic appearance of a full-thickness burn is called?
Formerly called third degree burn.It is dry, charred, hard
During inflammatory response, erythema is caused by?
Increased blood flow to damaged area (Vasodilation)
Systemic manifestations of inflammatory response include?
Fever (pyrexia), malaise (feeling unwell), anorexia, fatigue, headache
Indicators of a general inflammatory response?
Elevated C-Reactive protein (redness, heat, swelling, pain)
Which of the following cellular elements found in inflammatory response are responsible for phagocytosis?
Leukocytes (Neutrophils) & Lymphocytes (Macrophages, Monocytes)
Which chemical mediator is involved in prolonging the inflammatory response?
Leukotrienes & Prostaglandins
All of the following are correct statements regarding wound healing EXCEPT?
Granular tissue forms a permanent replacement for damaged tissue
Which of the following help to localize and contain foreign material during an inflammatory response?
Inhalation of carbon dioxide is a threat for many burn patients because this gas does what?
Binds to hemoglobin, taking the place of needed oxygen
How does scar tissue usually cause obstructions to develop in tubelike structures?
Scar tissue lacks normal function and shrinks over time, causing contractures, deformity or stricture
The role of memory cells is to?
Recognize antigen, develop a response and store it for future reference
any of a large group of diseases characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against your own tissues (failure of immune system to distinguish self from non-self)
Which of the following statements DOES NOT apply to MHC proteins or molecules?
All members of the family have identical MHC
In cases of HIV infection, the window period refers to the time between what?
Time between HIV infection and the production of antibodies
Which of the following is an effect of cytokines?
Stimulate activation and proliferation of B and T cells, communication between cells, involved in inflammation, fever and leukocytosis
Which of the following statements apply to the Complement system?
Inactive proteins that, when activated, stimulate release of chemical mediators, promoting inflammation, chemotaxis, phagocytosis