United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
A manufacturing system using standardized parts which are all identical and, thus, interchangeable
The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks
The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production
A machine separating seeds from raw cotton fibers
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Maryland to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the north and the west.
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal allowed western farmers to ship crops to sell in the north and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the west.
Tariff of 1816
The first tariff in US history designed for protection, which put a 20-25% tariff on foreign imports.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Court case validating the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States, denying states' rights to tax it.
John Quincy Adams
A democratic-republican, secretary of state, he served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
A devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation
1819 treaty between the united states and spain in which spain ceded florida to the US. It is also known as the Transcontinental Treaty.
Doctrine declaring Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the western hemisphere, and any attempt of interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the US.
Created by Henry Clay, this allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana territory (1820).
The seventh president of the United States (1829-1837), who, as a general, defeated the British at New Orleans in the war of 1812 (1815). As president, he opposed the bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
The practice of giving offices and other favors of government to political supporters and friends
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830 by congress, this act called for the government to negotiate treaties requiring the Native Americans to relocate west of the Mississippi River.
Trail of Tears
The forced removal of the Cherokee Native Americans. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas; more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Famous American politician and orator who advocated for renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. He would later push for a strong union.
AsJackson's first vice president, he was a leader of the fugitive slave law and argued on the floor of the senate slavery was needed in the south.
Tariff of Abominations
Also called tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the north but harmed the south; the south argued the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
Bank of the United States
A national bank funded by the federal government and wealthy investors, and a place in which money was printed, loans issued, and loans were regulated.
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose president Andrew Jackson and the democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements.
Martin Van Buren
Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson's first term, vice president during Jackson's second term, and won the presidency in 1836. He became Jackson's vice president after the resignation of Calhoun, and became the eighth president of the United States.
Panic of 1837
First depression in American history; banks lost money, people lost faith in banks, and country lost faith in president Martin Van Buren. This lasted four years due to large state debts, the expansion of credit by numerous people, an unfavorable amount of crop failures, and frenzy caused by an avalanche of land speculation.
William Henry Harrison
An American military leader, politician, the ninth president of the United States, and the first president to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the constitution until passage of the 25th amendment. Led US forces in the battle of Tippecanoe as governor of the Indiana territory.
The elected vice president of William Harrison, and the 10th president of the United States after Harrison's death in 1841. The President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk. Was opposed to many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery, despite being a self-proclaimed Whig.