are not single organisms - symbiotic associations between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism. The fungi are usually ascomycetes. The Photosynthetic organisms are green alga or cyanobacteria.
mutualistic relationships between fungi and plants. Roots are woven into a partnership with an even larger web of fungal mycelia. Fungi aid plants in absorbing water and minerals - producing a network that covers the roots of the plants - increasing the effective surface area. Also release enzymes that free nutrients in the soil. Plants provide fungi with the products of photosynthesis. Very specialized.
Alternation of Generations
The life cycles of many algae include both a diploid and a haploid generation. Many switch back and forth between haploid and diploid stages during their life cycles.
Large group of unicellular algae that are protected by a cell wall
Comprised of strands of algae cells called filaments.
Contains several semi-specialized cell types. Common example: Ulva.
Do not have vascular tissues or specialized tissues that conduct water and nutrients. Types: mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
Haploid (n) Phase of Plant
Diploid (2n) Phase of Plant
Contains haploid spores on mosses and ferns.
Looks like flat leaves attached to the ground. Belong to the phylum Hepaticophyta. Resemble the shape of a liver.
These plants were the first to have vascular tissue - which is specialized to conduct water and nutrients throughout the plant. Include: Ferns, horsetails, and club mosses.
were one of the great evolutionary innovations of the plant kingdom - key cells in xylem, a transport subsystem that carries water upward from the roots to every part of the plant.
creeping or underground stems on a fern
large leaves on a fern
Clusters of sporangia which are the containers of haploid spores on the underside of the fern's fronds
haploid reproductive cells that come out of the capsules of the sporophyte phase to form a new gametophyte.
long threadlike colonies where cells are stacked
Which two nonseed plants are never disputed to be in the plant kingdom?
Mosses and Ferns
What do plants need to Survive?
Sunlight, Water and minerals, Gas Exchange, Movement of Water and Nutrients
What separates the plants in the kingdom plantae?
Seeds, Flowers, and vascular Tissue
Produce oygen, ancestors to many other plants, provide oil, nitrogen fertilizer. Start food chains.
Plant nutrition - helps provide nutrients to plants
Help break up the hard soil of newly developing environments, produce some oxygen.
Young fern fronds
Hole in leaf - exchanges gases and can lose some water
What is the top of brown algae called, that kinda is similar to leaves?
What are the blades of brown algae attached to? It is a circular shape.
What is the "stem" of a brown algae called?
What are the "roots" of a brown algae called?
Where Red Algae Found? And Why
Deeper part of the ocean - because it absorbs the blue light and can get the sunlight from a long way away.
Advantages of Land Plants over algae
Seeds, adaptable, lack of competition, sunlight, CO2, Nutrients/soil/minerals, few predators, diversity
Why Mosses are pioneer plants
Moss float into new areas because spores are carried easily - some of the first to arrive. Able to live on the hard soil
Peat Moss Use?
Bio fuels, soil conditioner/enricher, food
Similar characteristics of all plants and plant-like algae
Cell wall, photosynthesis, chlorophyll a
Aquatic - swamps, fresh or salt water, hot springs, snow fields, sloth's back
Sexual (isogametes or sperm/egg) or asexual (cell division)
Uses of Plants
Food, Oxygen, Medicine, Clothing, Furniture, Paper, Shelter/Habitat, Fuel
Vascular Plants, Wet or Damp Environments, sporophyte dominant, dependent on water for reproduction
Small, Multicellular, live on moist land, lack vascular tissue, roots, leaves and stems, gametophyte dominate, dependent on water for reproduction
Phase dominant in Moss
Phase Dominant in Fern
Green Algae Characteristics
Live in Fresh or Salt Water, Cell Wall Composition, Sexual/Asexual Reproduction, Unicellular or Multicellular, Chlorophyll A and B, Food Stored As Starch
Brown Algae Characteristics
Chlorophyll A and C, Brown Pigment, Multicellular, Live in Salt Water
Red Algae Characteristics
Chlorophyll A, Live in Salt Water, Multicellular, Red Pigment, live at great depths
Characteristics of Plants
Eukaryotic, Multicellular, nonmotile, photosynethic autotrophs, Chlorophyll A and B, Chloroplasts, Cell Walls will cellulose, food stored as starch, reproduce sexually, alternate generations
Where are the gametes stored in moss
In the capsules at the top of the Sporophyte stage
which is specialized to conduct water and nutrients throughout the plant.
a transport subsystem that carries water upward from the roots to every part of the plant, a part of the veins of plants