Italian resurgence of nineteenth century - recalling the glories of ancient times and the Renaissance. Embodied in the idea of an Italian national and liberal state. Been stimulated by the French Revolution and Napoleon and promoted by the Carbonari and Mazzini's Young Italy movement.
King and Head of the House of Savoy(NW Italy). Heir to Charles Albert who had led 2 attacks on Austrian occupation of Lombardy-Venetia in 1848 and 1849, after granting liberal constitutions willingly. Victor Emmanuel ruled from 1849 onwards and appointed very capable prime minister in 1852, Camillo di Cavour - one of the shrewdest politicians of that and any age. Victor Emmanuel supported Cavour's policies and in 1861 became the King of Italy.
The House of Savoy was a very patriotic Italian family. Ruled Sardinia and aspired to unify Italy. Charles Albert and Victor Emmanuel were from the House of Savoy. Savoy, the territory, was part of a French Italian deal made with Napoleon for help against Austria. Nice and Savoy were to be given to Napoleon III in exchange for French military help against Austrians in Lombardy & Venetia. Technically, Lombardy & Venetia were considered a part of Italia Irredentia - i.e. Italian territory unredeemed from Austria. (Other parts of Italia Irredentia were Trieste, Trentino and Istria). The House of Savoy was the only native Italian dynasty.
Kingdom of S-P - Sardinia is an island south of Corsica and Piedmont is in the northwestern Italian plain. These two territories were governed by the House of Savoy. Granted liberal constitutions in 1848 and allowed to retain them even though Charles Albert had been unable to remove the Austrians from Lombardy & Venetia. Kingdom of P-S under the House of Savoy led the unification movement. Cavour and Victor Emmanuel with help from Garibaldi were able to achieve this. (Note: S-P fought in Crimean War in order to get seat at the peace table in Paris and earn recognition amongst the powers. )
Fanatical Italian republican who attempted to assassinate Napoleon III in 1858 because he was being too slow in making up his mind over whether to help Sardinia Piedmont against Austria.
" Guiseppe Garibaldi's 1150 Red Shirt followers who sailed from Sardinia Piedmont to Sicily in order to overthrow the government of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies/Naples. Received covert approval of Cavour. (Garibaldi had helped Mazzini in 1849 and was one of triumvirs in brief span of Roman Republic. Then fled to U.S. and later helped Uruguay gain independence.) Victor Emmanuel met Garibaldi in central Italy as he rode north from Naples and deterred him from entering and conquering Rome. The king convinced him to accept that Italy needed a constitutional monarchy for the parts that had been unified and not to force himself/a republic on Rome again. Garibaldi sometimes referred to as the "SWORD OF UNIFICATION."
From 1854 to 1856. Involved Russia vs. Britain, France, Turkey, Sardinia-Piedmont and later Austria. War fought over influence in Ottoman Empire and Balkans, protection of Christians, and issue of Balance of Power as well as access to the Mediterranean. There was a considerable rift betw. Napoleon III and Nicholas I of Russia. Napoleon thought active foreign policy would increase domestic political support for his regime. Allies concentrated on taking the Russian fortress at Sebastopol. Following death of Nicholas I, Alexander II sued for peace. The result was a seriously weakened Russia and Austria - both of which had been intent on maintaining the settlement of 1815. In the end, Roumania, and Serbia became autonomous and Italy and Prussia saw that there was a chance for change in the Congress of Vienna settlement. Russians accepted the neutralization of the Black Sea. OTHER IMPORTANT FEATURES OF CRIMEAN WAR WERE EMERGENCE OF WAR CORRESPONDENTS(JOURNALISTS), FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE & START OF NURSING AS A PROFESSION, AND THE CHARGE OF THE LIGHT BRIGADE BY ALFRED LORD TENNYSON(SEE H/O).
Emperor of France, 1852-1870. Involvement in Crimean War was for glory and out of resentment of Nicholas I of Russia. Peace of Paris brought prestige for Napoleon's empire. Had restored the Pope after Mazzini's abortive Roman Republic of 1848 and hence gained some popularity with French Catholics and in eyes of Catholic leaders in Europe. However, did agree with Cavour at Plombieres to help Sardinia-Piedmont if it were to be attacked by Austria. Bonaparte, after all had not too distant Italian ancestry, heroic uncle and had, himself, supported Italian revolutionaries at one time. But, Nap III backed out after Magenta. Shocked by carnage (Red Cross formed in response to this battle and color Magenta comes from deep red rivers of blood that flowed there) but also concerned since Prussians were mobilizing on the Rhine and revolutionary agitation in Italy seemed threatening. Hence, Piedmont only got Lombardy out of this war of 1859.
WAR OF 1859
Piedmont and France vs. Austrians in Lombardy. After Cavour had Plombieres agreement with Nap III he provoked an invasion of Austrian troops and triggered France's involvement. Two fierce battles, Solferino and Magenta shook Napoleon's confidence. Settlement of Villafranca won Lombardy for Piedmont but Venetia stayed with Austria.
June 4, 1859. Success for France and Piedmont. Austrians withdrew to Venetia. Nap shocked by bloodiness of battles. Not made out of same substance as his uncle.
June 24, 1859. Second major battle of War of 1859. Fearful of a hostile reaction by French Catholics, concerned that Piedmont might move on Papal States and because Prussians moving on Rhine - Nap agreed to settlement at VILLAFRANCA. Cavour resigned on principal because Nap not fulfilled bargain. Later, however, Venetia obtained in 1866 because Italians had helped in Austro-Prussian War by staying out of conflict. Promised as a reward by Bismarck.
Unredeemed Italy. Trentino, Trieste, Istria (& after Villafranca, Nice and Savoy). These were territories in which Italians were most numerous/preponderant but were not under Italian control
GERMAN CONFEDERATION OF 1815
Established after Napoleonic Wars at Congress of Vienna. Gone from 300 before Napoleon to 100 under Confederation of Rhine down to 38 states in a loose confederation. Members remained sovereign. Failed revolutions of 1848 were followed by restoration of this loose German Confederation. But, great economic and social changes were taking place. Industrialization made dramatic and rapid impact on Germany(iron and coal supplies increased x 6 1850 to 1870). The Zollverein had enhanced economic unity. Railroads were now linking the different German states and furthering industrialization. Germany was now ripe for unification and its population rose dramatically during this time putting additional strain on social structure. GERMAN CONFED DOMINATED BY AUSTRIA. WEAK & INEFFECTIVE BUT STIRRED NATIONALISTS TO SEEK ALTERNATIVES. DISSOLVED AFTER SEVEN WEEK'S (Austro-Prussian)WAR.
This was the established landowning class of Prussia from whom the officer corps was selected for the Prussian Army. It was very conservative and resistant to liberal reforms which might upset their status. Bismarck was originally from this class in the old Brandenburg region, east of the Elbe.
Danes wanting to incorporate Schleswig into their state since many Danes livere there and Denmark going through its own process of consolidation. Diet of German Confederation called for a war against Denmark to prevewnt this. But Bismarck wanted it for Prussia so made a deal with Austria for a joint Austro-Prussian effort to take place. Their combined forces easily overcame Denmark's and Prussia occupied Schleswig (to North) and Austria held Holstein (to South). However, tensions would arise between Prussia and Austria (as Bismarck had foreseen and intended all along) as Prussian troops and supplies moved through Holstein to reinforce Schleswig.
DANISH WAR OF 1864
Conflict fought between Danes and the combined forces of Prussia and Austria. Bismarck really wanted both territories for Prussia. Settlement gave Schleswig to Prussia and Holstein to Austria. Bismarck had no intention of leaving it at that. Settled by the CONVENTION OF GASTEIN.
SEVEN WEEKS WAR
In 1866 - aka The Austro-Prussian War. Bismarck provoked this. This was part of his policy of isolating Austria in order to achieve German unification UNDER PRUSSIAN DOMINATION. The initial dispute was over the occupation and rights of passage through Holstein (occupied by Austrians after Danish War). In this short war (7 weeks) Britain maintained a policy of non-intervention, Russia was busy with internal reform, Italy was lured into non-intervention with promises of Venetia, and Napoleon III was busy with domestic problems and the French army was occupied in Mexico. Battle of Sadowa saw defeat of Austria. Many other German states fought on Austria's side but were defeated and had to acknowledge the supreme power of Prussia.
BATTLE OF SADOWA
Fought in 1866 - aka the BATTLE OF KONIGRATZ. Austrians defeated by Von Moltke's crack Prussian troops. Prussian used needle gun (5 rounds per minute) and railroads for rapid troop movement. Bismarck made peace quickly before the other European powers could bet involved.
TREATY OF PRAGUE
Ended Seven Week's War. Austria relinquished Holstein to Prussia and Venetia to Italy. Germany states that had sided with Austria were also penalized...
NORTH GERMAN CONFEDERATION
After the Battle of Sadowa, Bismarck annexed Hannover, Nassau, Hesse-Cassel and Frankfurt in 1867. Ended the German Federal Union and organized the North German Confederation in which Prussia outweighed 21 other German states. Southern German states, Austria, Bavaria, Baden, Wurtemburg, and Hesse Darmstadt were outside the new organization and formed no union of their own. However, most were tied to Prussia by the Zollverein and by a defensive military alliance.
Leader of Socialists in Germany - unlike Marxists, he believed it possible to improve working class conditions through actions of existing government. Bismarck sensed in masses a potential ally of strong government versus private interests (middle class industrialists), and he negotiated even with socialists like LaSalle (Bis was master of Realpolitik). Majority of German socialists reached an agreemt with Bismarck (much to the annoyance of Marx). In return for democratic suffrage, the accepted the North German Confederation and Bismarck was thus winning popular approval for the emerging empire.
AKA The Ems Telegram. A liberal revolution in Spain left the provisional government there inviting Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern to assume the throne as a constitutional monarch of Spain. France objected for obvious reasons. Hohenzollerns had declined the offer more than once. But Bismarck used this bizarre situation to further his goals. He allowed a rumour that the offer would be accepted. BENEDETTI, the French ambassador, visited William I (King of Prussia) who was staying at Ems (a natural Spa in southern Germany) and asked for further reassurances that the Hohenzollerns would NOT accept the Spanish throne. William sent a telegram/dispatch to Bismarck back in Berlin notifying him of Benedetti's visit and request. Bismarck edited the telegram to make it appear that Benedetti had been insulted/admonished. Bismarck then "leaked" the edited telegram to the press. This amounted to a "slap in the face" since it hit the Paris newspapers on July 14, 1870. Napoleon III declared war -> the Franco Prussia War of July 1870.
BATTLE OF SEDAN
September 2, 1870. France defeated. Napoleon surrendered and taken prisoner. On September 4 there was an insurrection in Paris and the Third Republic was proclaimed.
SIEGE OF PARIS
Prussians and other Germans laid siege to Paris - lasts four months. German rulers meanwhile met at Versailles (outside of Paris). Bismarck arranged for the German Empire to be officially proclaimed on January 18, 1871 from the Hall of Mirrors no less. William I (Hohenzollern of Prussia) was proclaimed emperor/kaiser (hereditary). Bismarck assumed the title of chancellor. Ten days later, Paris surrendered. Bismarck insisted on the election of Constituent Assembly by universal male suffrage for France. He also dictated the peace terms which were established at...
TREATY OF FRANKFURT
May 10, 1871. An indemnity of 5 billion gold francs was to be paid. Alsace and Lorraine (eastern provinces of France were to go to Germany (had been part of France since 17th century). There was to be a German military occupation until the indemnity had been paid. NOTE: BY TREATING FRANCE HARSHLY, IT IS SAID, BISMARCK PLANTED THE SEEDS OF WW I.
INDEMNITY ACT OF 1867
By this date, Bismarck had annexed to Prussia almost all Germany north of Mainz. Prussian liberals gave in and Prussian parliament passed this act in which Bismarck admitted his high-handedness during the constitutional struggles he had had with parliament back in the early sixties over taxes for military expenditures, but parliament, nonetheless, legalized his action ex post facto (after the fact). This act passes in the new light of Prussia's military successes. THUS "LIBERALISM WITHERED AWAY BEFORE NATIONALISM."
PRUSSIAN CONSTITUTION OF 1850
Rather illiberal constitution granted by Frederick William IV after the revolutions of 1848/9. Within the new empire of 1871, each German state kepts its own constitution. Prussia stayed with that of 1850. However, in affairs of the Reich/empire, the vote was based on universal male suffrage. BUT, the emperor/kaiser, had legal control over foreign and military policy of the empire. THUS, THE GERMAN EMPIRE SERVED AS A MECHANISM TO MAGNIFY THE ROLE OF PRUSSIA, THE PRUSSIAN MILITARY, AND THE EAST ELBIAN ARISTOCRACY IN WORLD AFFAIRS.
This movement increasingly evident after 1848. Slavs in Austrian Empire wanting to maintain framework of empire in which there would be increasing local self-government for nationalities to grow in.
Hapsburg emperor of Austria 1848-1916. Very traditional and pro-Hapsburg rights. Disliked change, liberalism and progressivism. Allied with Catholics and Vatican (which was not very conservative). Lived in pompous dream world surrounded by imperial court, high churchmen, and army leaders. Early in reign he emphasized centralization and material progress. This was distasteful to the Magyars of Hungary since it was tantamount (i.e. the equivalent of ) Germanization.
This was a result of the Ausgleigh of 1867. The compromise established that Wet of the River Leith would be the Empire of Austria, and East of the River Leith would be the Kingdom of Hungary. Both were to be equal. Each would have its own constitution and parliament to which the governing ministries would be responsible. The administrative language of Austria would be German and of Hungary it would be Magyar. Hapsburgs would be the ruler of both monarchies. Dlegations of the parliament would laternates their meetings between Vienna and Budapest and there would be a common ministry of finance, foreign affaris and war. In effect, Austria was a German nation state and Hungary was a Magyar nation state. Problem was - there were many Germanys and Magyars wo were minorities in one of the two states and who felt aggrieved by this settlement. Likewise, there were other minorities who were also left out of calculations (ex. Czechs, Poles, Slovenes in Austria, Croats, Serbs, Slovaks in Hungary).
In 1867 - this was the name given to the compromise between Germans of Austria-Bohemia and Magyars of Hungary. Worked to the common disadvantage of Slavs (due to German and Mahyar prejudice against them.
Austrian negotiator for the Ausgleich of 1867. Commented that the idea of the compromise was that each people, Germans and Magyars, should thereafter govern its own barbarians in its own way.
1855-1881 - ruled. Became Tsar/Czar during Crimean War - took over from Nicholas I. Not liberal by nature but saw the need for reform. Would eventually be known as the "liberator czar".
Those in mid-nineteenth century Russia who saw need for reform based on Western models.
Those in mid-nineteenth century Russia who believed Russia had a special destiny of its own which imitation of Western Europe would only weaken or pervert.
Name for Russian peasants under serfdom - their situation close to Americn slavery. Used in agriculture and in the early factories. Bought and sold by landowers. They had no rights. Bulk of Russian population were muzhiks. BUT by mid 19th century both Russian conservatives AND liberals saw system decaying and inefficient in part because the muzhiks were illiterate and without incentive, self-respect, or pride and made poor workmen and poor soldiers.
Nicholas I (r. 1825-1855) had established this in his chancellory as a system of secret political police. Whilst not the first example of a secret police in European history, it was unparalleled for its arbitrary and inquisitorial methods.
Peasant village assembly - which took over administration of peasant land as collective property. Village as a whole was to make redemption payments and mir could deal with defaults. Could prevent peasants moving away. Government prevented selling of mortgage of land to outsiders and hence helped preserve peasant society.
ACT OF EMANCIPATION
By imperial ukase (edict) in 1861, this abolished serfdom - done by Alexander II (who subsequently known as "liberator czar"). Peasants were to be legally free. Land divided in half. Half went to gentry, half went to peasants. Peasants were to make redemption payments to gentry through the mirs. Actually, the gentry benefitted. Much of their land had been mortgaged. Now payments would be made to them and there were no obligations to the peasants. But, the peasants were still effectively tied to the mirs.
Money owed by peasants to gentry for the land that was distributed to them at Emancipation. Mir became responsible for organizing the payment of this.
Alexander II created this in 1864 - a system of provincial and district councils which were elected by various groups including peasants. It was to deal with education, medical relief, public welfare, food supply, and roads in their areas. DID help develop civic sentiment and gave some administrative experience. Many liberals urged a similar body for all of Russia - a ZEMSKY SOBOR/DUMA, but Alexander II refused.
Dissatisfied intelligentsia in 1860s - "believed in nothing" except science. Took cynical view of Tsar and zemstvos. Some toured villages and fanned peasant discontent. Reminded peasants of Razin and Pugachev rebellions.
Socialist who after 1848 came to believe that the true and natural future of socialism lay in Russia because of the weakness of capitalism in Russia and the existence of a kind of collectivism (communal spirit) in the mir.
More radical than Herzen. Was an anarchist who, with NEGHAIEV wrote People's Justice and Catechism of a Revolutionist. Said should sever all links with existing social order and live for the revolution, "...everything which promotes success of the revolution is moral."
Secret terrorist society a la Bakunin. Determined to assassinate the czar. Underground organization was also a threat to liberals. Alexander II became even more liberal and abolished the Third Section, lifted censorship and on the day he issued the edict for a nationally elected commission, he was assassinated by the People's Will (1881). PW had earlier attempted assassinations in 1866, 1873, and 1880. Women were included in the ranks of this movement and SOFIA PEROVSKAIA participated in the assassination plot. She was executed along with other members. By assassinating the liberator czar, the PW provoked his heir and successor to clamp down on all reform movements.
After assassination of Alexander II, Alexander I took over and abandoned father's ideas of a Commission and reverted to brutal program of resistance to liberals and revolutionaries alike. However, peasant emancipation, zemstvos and judicial reforms were allowed to continue.