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Texas v. White

1869 - Argued that Texas had never seceded because there is no provision in the Constitution for a state to secede, thus Texas should still be a state and not have to undergo reconstruction.

Ulysses S. Grant

U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.

Whiskey Ring

During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.

"Waving the bloody shirt"

The practice of reviving unpleasant memories from the past. Representative Ben F. Butler waved before the House a bloodstained nightshirt of a carpetbagger flogged by Klan members.

Liberal Republicans: Carl Schurz, Horace Greeley

Schurz and Greeley were liberal republicans - they believed in civil service reform, opposed corruption, wanted lower tariffs, and were lenient toward the South.

Panic of 1873, depression

Unrestrained speculation on the railroads let to disaster - inflation and strikes by railroad workers. 18,000 businesses failed and 3 million people were out of work. Federal troops were called in to end the strike.

Election of 1876: candidates, electoral commission

Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.

Compromise of 1877

Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.

Greenbacks

Name given to paper money issued by the government during the Civil War, so called because the back side was printed with green ink. They were not redeemable for gold, but $300 million were issued anyway. Farmers hit by the depression wanted to inflate the notes to cover losses, but Grant vetoed an inflation bill and greenbacks were added to permanent circulation. In 1879 the federal government finally made greenbacks redeemable for gold.

Ohio Idea

1867 - Senator George H. Pendleton proposed an idea that Civil War bonds be redeemed with greenbacks. It was not adopted.

Legal Tender cases

The Supreme Court debated whether it was constitutional for the federal government to print paper money (greenbacks).

Species Resumption Act

1879 - Congress said that greenbacks were redeemable for gold, but no one wanted to redeem them for face gold value. Because paper money was much more convenient than gold, they remained in circulation.

Greenbacks

Labor Party - Founded in 1878, the party was primarily composed of prairie farmers who went into debt during the Panic of 1873. The Party fought for increased monetary circulation through issuance of paper currency and bimetallism (using both gold and silver as legal tender), supported inflationary programs in the belief that they would benefit debtors, and sought benefits for labor such as shorter working hours and a national labor bureau. They had the support of several labor groups and they wanted the government to print more greenbacks.

Pendleton Civil Service Act

1883 - The first federal regulatory commission. Office holders would be assessed on a merit basis to be sure they were fit for duty. Brought about by the assassination of Garfield by an immigrant who was angry about being unable to get a government job. The assassination raised questions about how people should be chosen for civil service jobs.

Chester A. Arthur

Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.

Election of 1884: James G. Blaine, Grover Cleveland

Democrat - Cleveland - 219 electoral, 4,911,017 popular. Republican - Blaine - 182 electoral, 4,848,334 popular. Butler - 175,370 popular. St. John - 150,369 popular. Cleveland was the first Democrat to be president since Buchanan. He benefitted from the split in the Republican Party.

Stalwarts

Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.

Roscoe Conkling (1829-1888)

A Stalwart leader and part of the political machine.

Half-breeds

Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party.

Mugwumps

Republicans who changed their vote during the 1884 election from Blaine to Cleveland. Mugwump is the Algonquin Indian word for "chief" and was used in a N.Y. Sun editorial to criticize the arrogance of the renegade Republicans.

"Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"

James Gillespie Blaine said that the Irish Catholics were people of "rum, Romanism, and rebellion." It offended many people and cost Blaine the election.

High tariffs

Levied against imported and manufactured goods, once again hurting the South and the economy to raise money for the federal government and help Northern industries.

Treasury surplus

During the Reconstruction, the treasury was in deficit, so it cut back spending to build up the treasury and ended with a surplus.

Pensions, Garfield

Congress granted pensions to all veterans with any disability for any reason. Cleveland vetoed it, which contributed to his not being reelected. He didn't think Confederate veterans should receive pensions.

Secret ballot / Australian ballot

First used in Australia in the 1880s. All candidates names were to be printed on the same white piece of paper at the government's expense and polling was to be done in private. It was opposed by the party machines, who wanted to be able to pressure people into voting for their candidates, but it was implemented and is still in use.

Cleveland's 1887 Annual Address

Emphasized civil service reform, and fought high tariffs.

Election of 1888: candidates, issues

Republican - Harrison - 233 electoral; 5,444,337 popular. Democrat - Cleveland - 168 electoral, 5,540,050 popular. Fisk - 250,125 popular. Harrison said he would protect American industry with a high tariff. Issues were civil service reform and tariffs.

Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901), Billion Dollar Congress, Czar Reed

Harrison: Republican, ran against Cleveland, became the 23rd president. Billion Dollar Congress: The first session where Congress spent over $1 billion. Czar Reed: The nickname of Thomas Braket, Speaker of the House 1889-1891. He tried to increase the power of the Speaker.

McKinley Tariff

A highly protective tariff passed in 1880. So high it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.

Election of 1892: candidates, issues

Democrat - Grover Cleveland and V.P. Adlai E. Stevenson - 5,554,414 popular; 227 electoral votes. Republican - Benjamin Harrison and V.P. Whitecar Reed - 145 electoral votes. National Prohibition Convention - John Brownwell and V.P. James B. Cranfil. Socialist Labor Convention - Simon Wing and V.P. Charles H. Machett. Republicans wanted a high protective tariff, but Democrats opposed it. Democrats secured a majority in both houses.

Morgan bond transaction

John Pierpont Morgan took over the Susquehanna and Albany railroads. He won the confidence of European investors and used them for investment capital. He then took over steel companies and bought Carnegie's interests in steel. This was the largest personal financial transaction in U.S. history. Morgan combined the companies to form the U.S. Steel Company, the world's first billion dollar corporation. Eased the Panic of 1873.

Wilson

Gorman Tariff - Meant to be a reduction of the McKinley Tariff, it would have created a graduated income tax, which was ruled unconstitutional.

Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust Company, 1895

The court ruled the income could not be taxed. In response, Congress passed the 16th Amendment which specifically allows taxation of income (ratified 1913).

Dingley Tariff

Passed in 1897, the highest protective tariff in U.S. history with an average duty of 57%. It replaced the Wilson - Gorman Tariff, and was replaced by the Payne - Aldrich Tariff in 1909. It was pushed through by big Northern industries and businesses.

Laissez-faire

A theory that the economy does better without government intervention in business.

Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations

Promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics.

Union Pacific Railroad, Central Pacific Railroad

Union Pacific: Began in Omaha in 1865 and went west. Central Pacific: Went east from Sacramento and met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869, where the golden spike ceremony was held. Transcontinental railroad overcharged the federal government and used substandard materials.

"Credit Mobilier"

A construction company owned by the larger stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad. After Union Pacific received the government contract to build the transcontinental railraod, it "hired" Credit Mobilier to do the actual construction, charging the federal government nearly twice the actual cost of the project. When the scheme was discovered, the company tried to bribe Congress with gifts of stock to stop the investigation. This percipitated the biggest bribery scandal in U.S. history, and led to greater public awareness of government corruption.

"Robber Barons"

The owners of big businesses who made large amounts of money by cheating the federal government.

John D. Rockefeller

Joined his brother William in the formation of the Standard Oil Company in 1870 and became very wealthy.

Standard Oil Company

Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.

Horizontal consolidation

A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of one aspect of an entire industry or manufacturing process, such as a monopoly on auto assembly lines or on coal mining, for example.

Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick

Business tycoons, they made their money in the steel industry. Philanthropists.

Vertical consolidation

A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of every step of the manufacturing process for a single product, such as an auto maker that also owns its own steel mills, rubber plantations, and other companies that supply its parts. This allows the company to lower its costs of production and drive its competition out of business.

Charles Schwab (1862-1939)

Founder and president of the U.S. Steel Corporation. First president of the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1901, he was also involved in the stock market.

Thomas A. Edison

One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.

Alexander Graham Bell

1876 - Invented the telephone.

Leland Stanford (1824-1893)

Multimillionaire railroad builder, he founded Stanford University in memory of his only son, who died young. He founded the Central Pacific Railroad.

James J. Hill, Great Northern Railroad

Empire builder, he tried to monopolize the northern railroads.

Cornelius Vanderbilt, New York Central Railroad

A railroad baron, he controlled the New York Central Railroad.

Bessemer process

Bessemer invented a process for removing air pockets from iron, and thus allowed steel to be made. This made skyscrapers possible, advances in shipbuilding, construction, etc.

U.S. Steel Corporation, Elbert H. Gary

Gary was corporate lawyer who became the U.S. Steel Corporation president in 1898. U.S. Steel was the leading steel producer at the time.

Mesabi Range

A section of low hills in Minnesota owned by Rockefeller in 1887, it was a source of iron ore for steel production.

Pierpont Morgan

Financier who arranged the merger which created the U.S. Steel Corporation, the world's first billion dollar corporation. Everyone involved in the merger became rich. (Vertical consolidation).

Gustavus Swift

In the 1800s he enlarged fresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and refrigeration. He monopolized the meat industry.

Phillip Armour (1832-1901)

Pioneered the shipping of hogs to Chicago for slaughter, canning, and exporting of meat.

James B. Duke

Made tobacco a profitable crop in the modern South, he was a wealthy tobacco industrialist.

Andrew Mellon (1855-1937)

One of the wealthiest bankers of his day, and along with other business tycoons, controlled Congress.

"Stock watering"

Price manipulation by strategic stock brokers of the late 1800s. The term for selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.

Jay Cooke Company

The Panic of 1873 was caused by the failure of this company, which had invested too heavily in railroads and lost money when the railroads cheated the federal government.

Jay Gould and Jim Fiske

Stock manipulators and brothers-in-law of President Grant, they made money selling gold.

Pools

Agreement between railroads to divide competition. Equalization was achieved by dividing traffic.

Rebates

Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone.

Trusts

Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.

Holding companies

Companies that hold a majority of another company's stock in order to control the management of that company. Can be used to establish a monopoly.

Fourteenth Amendment's "Due Process Clause"

No state shall deny a person life, liberty, or property without due process of law. (The accused must have a trial.).

Munn v. Illinois

1877 - The Supreme Court ruled that an Illinois law that put a ceiling on warehousing rates for grain was a constitutional exercise of the state's power to regulate business. It said that the Interstate Commerce Commission could regulate prices.

Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois

1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.

Interstate Commerce Act, Interstate Commerce Commission

A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.

Long haul, short haul

Different railroad companies charged separate rates for hauling goods a long or short distance. The Interstate Commerce Act made it illegal to charge more per mile for a short haul than a long one.

Sherman Antitrust Act

1890 - A federal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade.

E.C. Knight Company case

1895 - The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production of sugar had no direct effect on commerce, the company couldn't be controlled by the government. It also ruled that mining and manufacturing weren't affected by interstate commerce laws and were beyond the regulatory power of Congress.

National Labor Union

Established 1866, and headed by William Sylvis and Richard Trevellick, it concentrated on producer cooperation to achieve goals.

William Sylvis

Leader of the National Labor Union.

Knights of Labor: Uriah Stephens, Terence Powderly

An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.

American Federation of Labor (AFL)

Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members; by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of different unions.

Samuel Gompers

President of the AFL, he combined unions to increase their strength.

Collective bargaining

Discussions held between workers and their employers over wages, hours, and conditions.

Injunction

A judicial order forcing a person or group to refrain from doing something.

Strikes

The unions' method for having their demands met. Workers stop working until the conditions are met. It is a very effective form of attack.

Boycotts

People refuse to buy a company's product until the company meets demands.

Closed shop

A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.

Black list

A list of people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were refused jobs and harassed by unions and businesses.

Yellow Dog contracts

A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.

Company unions

People working for a particular company would gather and as a unit demand better wages, working conditions and hours.

Great Railroad Strike

July, 1877 - A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men.

Haymarket Square Riot

100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.

John Peter Altgeld

Governor of Illinois during the Haymarket riots, he pardoned three convicted bombers in 1893, believing them victims of the "malicious ferocity" of the courts.

Homestead Strike

The workers at a steel plant in Pennsylvania went on strike, forcing the owner to close down. Armed guards were hired to protect the building. The strikers attacked for five months, then gave in to peace demands.

Pinkertons

Members of the Chicago police force headed by Alan Pinkerton, they were often used as strike breakers.

American Railway Union

Led by Eugene Debs, they started the Pullman strike, composed mostly of railroad workers.

Pullman Strike, 1894

Started by enraged workers who were part of George Pullman's "model town", it began when Pullman fired three workers on a committee. Pullman refused to negotiate and troops were brought in to ensure that trains would continue to run. When orders for Pullman cars slacked off, Pullman cut wages, but did not cut rents or store prices.

Eugene V. Debs

Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.

Richard Olney

Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.

Danbury Hatters Strike

Workers in a hat-making factory went on strike.

George Washington Plunkitt

He was head of Tammany Hall and believed in "Honest Graft".

"Honest Graft"

Justified bribery or cheating.

Boss Tweed

Large political boss and head of Tammany Hall, he controlled New York and believed in "Honest Graft".

Tammany Hall

Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.

Thomas Nast

Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.

"New Imigration"

The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.

Dillingham Commission Report

1911 - Congressional commission set up to investigate demands for immigration restriction. It's report was a list of complains against the "new immigrants.".

Streetcar suburbs

The appearance of the streetcar made living within the heart of the city unnecessary. People began moving to the edges of the cities and commuting to work by streetcar. Led to growth of suburbs.

Tenements

Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.

Jane Addams, Hull House

Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.

Denis Kearney

Irish immigrant who settled in San Fransicso and fought for workers rights. He led strikes in protest of the growing number of imported Chineseworkers who worked for less than the Americans. Founded the Workingman's Party, which was later absorbed into the Granger movement.

Chinese Exclusion Law

1882 - Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and forbid further immigration of Chinese. Supported by American workers who worried about losing their jobs to Chinese immagrants who would work for less pay.

American Protective Association

A Nativist group of the 1890s which opposed all immigration to the U.S.

Literacy tests

Immigrants were required to pass a literacy test in order to gain citizenship. Many immigrants were uneducated or non-English-speakers, so they could not pass. Meant to discourage immigration.

James Bryce, The American Commonwealth

Opposed the Nativist sentiment and promoted the "melting pot" idea of American culture.

John A. Roebling (1806-1869), Brooklyn Bridge

Roebling pioneered the development of suspension bridges and designed the Brooklyn Bridge, but died before its construction was completed.

Louis Sullivan (1856-1914)

Known as the father of the skyscraper because he designed the first steel-skeleton skyscraper. Mentor of Frank Lloyd Wright.

Frank Lloyd Wright

Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.

Ashcan School

Also known as The Eight, a group of American Naturalist painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators, they beleived in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail. Their 1908 display was the first art show in the U.S.

Armory Show

1913 - The first art show in the U.S., organized by the Ashcan School. Was most Americans first exposure to European Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art, and caused a modernist revolution in American art.

Anthony Comstock (1844-1915)

Social reformer who worked against obscenity.

Charles Darwin, Origin of Species

Presented the theory of evolution, which proposed that creation was an ongoing process in which mutation and natural selection constantly give rise to new species. Sparked a long-running religious debate over the issue of creation.

Social Darwinism

Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), The Gospel of Wealth

Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

British, developed a system of philosophy based on the theory of evolution, believed in the primacy of personal freedom and reasoned thinking. Sought to develop a system whereby all human endeavours could be explained rationally and scientifically.

William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other

Economist and sociologist.

Henry Ward Beecher (1813-1889)

Minister who worked against slavery in Kansas Border War, promoted civil service reform.

Rev. Russel Conwell, "Acres of Diamonds"

Baptist preacher whose famous speech said that hard work and thrift would lead to success.

Dwight L. Moody (1837-1899)

Evangelist who preached the social gospel.

Rev. Josiah Strong

Enivisioned a "final competition of races," in which the Anglo-Saxons would emerge victorious.

Lester Frank Ward

Sociologist who attacked social Darwinism in his book, Dynamic Sociology.

Social gospel

A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.

Salvation Army, YMCA

Provided food, housing, and supplies for the poor and unemployed.

Walter Rauschenbusch

New York clergyman who preached the social gospel, worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions.

Washington Gladden

Congregationalist minister who followed the social gospel and supported social reform. A prolific writer whose newspaper cloumns and many books made him a national leader of the Social gospel movement.

Rerum Novarum

1891 - Pope Leo XII's call to the Catholic Church to work to alleviate social problems such as poverty.

Charles Sheldon, In His Steps Proofed Through Here

A very popular collection of sermons which encouraged young people to emulate Christ.

Mary Baker Eddy (1871-1910)

Founded the Church of Christian Scientists and set forth the basic doctrine of Christian Science.

Chautauqua Movement

One of the first adult education programs. Started in 1874 as a summer training program for Sunday School teachers, it developed into a travelling lecture series and adult summer school which traversed the country providing religious and secular education though lectures and classes.

Johns Hopkins University

A private university which emphasized pure research. It's entrance requirements were unusually strict -- applicants needed to have already earned a college degree elsewhere in order to enroll.

Charles W. Elliot, Harvard University

He was the president of Harvard University, and started the policy of offering elective classes in addition to the required classes.

Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903)

America's greatest theoretical scientist, he studied thermodynamics and physical chemistry.

Morril Act

1862 - Set aside public land in each state to be used for building colleges.

Land grant colleges: A&M, A&T, A&I

These were colleges built on the land designated by the Morril Act of 1862.

Hatch Act

1887 - Provided for agricultural experimentation stations in every state to improve farming techniques.

Edward Bellamy, Looking Backwards, 2000-1887

1888 - Utopian novel which predicted the U.S. woudl become a socialist state in which the government would own and oversee the means of production and would unite all people under moral laws.

Henry George, Progress and Poverty

Said that poverty was the inevitable side-effect of progress.

The single tax

A flat tax proposed by Henry George. (A flat tax is one in which every person pays the same amount, regardless of whether they are rich or poor.).

"Gilded Age"

A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.

Nouveau riche

French for "new rich." Refered to people who had become rich through business rather than through having been born into a rich family. The nouveau riche made up much of the American upper classof the late 1800s.

William James

Developed the philosophy of pragmatism. One of the founders of modern psychology, and the first to attempt to apply psychology as a science rather than a philosophy.

Pragmatism

A philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations.

Edwin Lawrence Godkin (1831-1902), editor of The Nation

Political writer who founded The Nation magazine, which called for reform.

William Dean Howells (1837-1920)

Editor of the Atlantic Monthly, and a champion of the realist movement in fiction writing.

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