Biology

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Primary function of DNA in cells

store information that tells the cells which proteins to make.

Hydrogen bonds

the two strands of a DNA molecule are held together

Adenine

according to the base pairing rules, guanine binds with

adenine ribose phosphate

which of the following is not a correct structure of a nucleotide

the percentage of adenine in DNA is

equal to the percentage of thymine

what are the three parts of a DNA nucleotide and how are they connected to each other

3 deoxribose sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base

if 15% of the nucleotide in a DNA molecule contains guanine, what percentage of the nucleotides contain each of the other three bases

the 15% is cytosine because they are equal and 35% each thymine and adenine

why is complementary base pairing important in DNA structure

without complimentary base pairing their would be no structure of a DNA

How did xray diffraction photographs help Watson and Crick determine the structure of DNA?

the xray helped Watson and Crick determined that there is an double helix it wouldnt stick together.

replication fork

is a structure that forms within the nucleus during DNA replication

helicase

are class of enzymes vital to all living organisms they move directly along nucleic acid.

semi conservative replication

describes the method by which DNA is replicated in all known cells

Before replication can take place

the two strands of DNA must seperate

replication of the two DNA strands takes place

in two different directions

in replication in prokaryotes

two replication forks move in opposite directions

a mutation

change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA

which of the following enzymes is involved with breaking hydrogen bonds

DNA hellcase

how does replication occur so quickly in eukaryotes

replication occurs so quickly in the eukaroyte because it moves in the same direction. replication occurs simultaneously

why is it important that exact copies of DNA are produced during replication

Its important that exact copies are made so no mutations occur.

How is DNA replication related to cancer

cancer is a mutation in the DNA of an organism

why is it advantageous to have weak hydrogen bonds between complementary bases and strong covalent bonds between phosphate and deoxyribose groups in a DNA molecule?

it is advantageous to have to weak hydrogen bond between complementary bases because they need stronger bases

each nulceotide in a DNA molecule consists of a

phosphate group a five carbon sugar molecule and a nitrogen base

which of the following describes the base pairing rules in DNA

adenine pairs with thymine and cytosine pairs with guanine

The areas where DNA separates during replication are called

replication forks

which of the following proofreads the new DNA molecules during replication

DNA polymerases

transcription

DNA to mRNA

translation

mRNA to protein

codon

sequence of three bases in mRNA

anticodon

sequence of three bases in tRNA

genome

DNA and mRNA

five carbon sugar found in DNA nucleotides

Deoxyribose

DNA polymerase

enzyme that adds nucleotides to exposed nitrogen bases

transformation

transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another

Double Helix

is used to describe the shape of DNA

bacteriaphage

a virus that infects bacteria

helicase

enzyme that separates DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds that link the nitrogen bases

nucleotide

name for DMA subunit

complementary

relationship of two DNA strands to each other

virulent

disease causing

base pairing

rules describe the arrangement of the nitrogen bases between two DNA strands

DNA replication

the process by which DNA is copied

transformation fork

is the area that results after the double helix separates during replication

codon

three nucleotide sequence in mRNA that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start or stop signal

translation

RNA directs the assembly of proteins

anticodon

three nucleotides on the RNA that are complementary to the sequence of codon in mRNA

amino acids

a protein is a polymer consisting of a specific sequence

the genetic code specifies the correlation between

an RNA nucleotide sequence and an amino acid sequence

mRNA codon

during translation, one end of a tRNA molecule pairs with a complementary

nucleus

in a eukaryotic cells, RNA is copied from DNA in this

two amino acids are linked by a peptide bond when

two tRNAs pair with neighboring codons on an mRNA transcript

list in sequence the tRNA anticodons that are complementary to the mRNA sequence

UAC, UA, CGU and UCA no stop

how many amino acids will be in the polypeptide that is initially formed when this mRNA sequence is translated

four

explain why methionine is the first amino acid in every growing polypeptide

RNA transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make protein

describe three way that RNA differs from DNA

RNA directs the assembly of protein, forming protein based on information DNA. DNA acts as a template for the synthesis of RNA

how would a deletion of one nucleotide in the middle of an mRNA transcript affect the polypeptide specified by the transcript

it would change the DNA's genetic make up

nitrogen base

a nitrogen containing molecule having chemical properties of a base

complementary base pair

the standard arrangement of bases in nucleotides in reaction the their opposite pair

pyrimidine

is is heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to berreone and prynidine

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