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ox

the people whose interests are affected by an organization's activities

stakeholders

consists of employees, owners, and the board of directors, if any.

internal stakeholders

of an organization consist of all those who can claim it as their legal property.

owners

people or groups in the organization's external environment that are affected by it.

external stakeholders

consists of 11 groups that present you with daily tasks to handle: customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors, strategic allies, employee organizations, local communities, financial institutions, government regulators, special-interest groups, and mass media.

task environment

are those who pay to use an organization's goods or services.

customers

people or organizations that compete for customers or resources.

competitors

is a person or an organization that provides supplies-that is, raw materials, services, equipment, labor or energy-to other organizations.

supplier

is a person or an organization that helps another organization sell its goods and services to customers.

distributor

describes the relationship of two organizations who join forces to achieve advantages neither can perform as well alone.

strategic allies

rescinding the tax breaks when firms don't deliver promised jobs

clawbacks

regulatory agencies that establish ground rules under which organizations may operate

government regulators

are groups whose members try to influence specific issues.

special interest groups

include six forces: economic, technological, sociocultural, demographic, political-legal, and international.

general environment or macroenvironment

consist of the general economic conditions and trends-unemployment, inflation, interest rates, economic growth-that may affect an organization's performance.

economic forces

are new developments in methods for transforming resources into goods or services.

technological forces

are influences and trends and trends originating in a country's, a society's, or a culture's human relationships and values that may affect an organization.

sociocultural forces

are influences on an organization arising from changes in the characteristics of a population, such as age, gender, or ethnic origin.

demographic forces

are changes in the way politics shape laws and laws shape the opportunities for and threats to an organization.

political-legal forces

are changes in the economic, political, legal, and technological global system that may affect an organization.

international forces

a situation in which you have to decide whether to pursue a course of action that may benefit you or your organization but that is unethical or even illegal.

ethical dilemma

are the standards of right and wrong that influence behavior.

ethics

is behavior that is accepted as "right" as opposed to "wrong" according to those standards.

ethical behavior

the pattern of values within an organization.

value system

are the relatively permanent and deeply held underlying beliefs and attitudes that help determine a person's behavior.

values

is guided by what will result in the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

utilitarian approach

is guided by what will result in the individual's best long-term interests, which ultimately are in everyone's self interest.

individual approach

is guided by respect for the fundamental rights of human beings, such as those expressed in the U.S Constitution's Bill of Rights.

moral-rights approach

is guided by respect for impartial standards of fairness and equity.

justice approach

the illegal trading of a company's stock by people using confidential company information.

insider trading

using cash from newer investors to pay off older ones

ponzi scheme

established requirements for proper financial record keeping for public companies and penalties of as much as 25 years in prison for noncompliance.

sarbanes-oxley act of 2002

has proposed three levels of personal moral development-preconventional, conventional, and postconventional.

Laurence Kohlberg

Kohlberg
Level 1
follows rules

preconventional

Kohlberg
Level 2
follows expectations of others

conventional

Kohlberg
Level 3
guided by internal values

postconventional

represents employees' perceptions about the extent to which work environments support ethical behavior.

ethical climate

consists of a formal written set of ethical standards guiding an organization's actions.

code of ethics

is an employee who reports organizational misconduct to the public.

whistle-blower

is a manager's duty to take actions that will benefit the interests of society as well as of the organization.

social responsibility

the notion that corporations are expected to go above and beyond following the law and making a profit.

corporate social responsibility (CSR)

This University of Georgia business scholar believed that corporate social responsibility rests at the top of a pyramid of a corporation's obligations, right up there with economic, legal, and ethical obligations.

Archie B. Carroll

making charitable donations to benefit humankind.

philanthropy

represents all the ways people are unlike and alike-the differences and similarities in age, gender, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, capabilities, and socioeconomic background.

diversity

is defined as the stable physical and mental characteristics responsible for a person's identity.

personality

are those human differences that exert a powerful, sustained effect throughout every stage of our lives: gender, age, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, physical abilities.

internal dimensions of diversity

include an element of choice; they consist of the personal characteristics that people acquire, discard, or modify throughout their lives: educational background, marital status, parental status, religion, income, geographic location, work experience, recreational habits, appearance, personal habitats.

external dimensions of diversity

the metaphor for an invisible barrier preventing women and minorities from being promoted to top executive jobs.

glass ceiling

which prohibits discrimination against the disable and requires organizations to reasonably accommodate an individual's disabilities.

Americans with Disabilities Act

working at jobs that require less education than they have.

underemployed

is the belief that one's native country, culture, language, abilities, or behavior is superior to that of another culture.

ethnocentrism

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