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frons

forehead

nasus

nose

oculus

eye

facies

face

oris

mouth or oral

mentis

chin

axilla

armpit

brachium

arm

antecubitis

front of elbow

carpus

wrist

palma

palm

pollex

thumb

digits or phalanges

fingers or toes

patella

kneecap

tarsus

ankle

hallux

big toe

femur

thigh

pubis

pubic

inguen

groin

manus

hand

pelvis

pelvic

umbilicus

navel

abdomen

abdominal

mamma

breast

thoracis

thorax

cervicis

neck

bucca

cheek

occulus

eye

cephalon

head

acromion

acromial (shoulder)

dorsum

back

olecrannon

back of elbow

lumbus

lumbar

popliteus

back of knee

calcaneus

heel of foot

planta

sole of foot

proximal

closer to the trunk

distal

farther from the trunk

saggital

vertical plane through the middle that separates the body into left and right parts

coronal (frontal) plane

plane that cuts through the cranium and divides the body into anterior and posterior portions

transverse (horizontal) plane

planes that divide the body into superior and inferior portions

integumentary system

Major organs:
• Skin
• Hair
• Sweat glands
• Nails

Functions
• Protects against environmental hazards.
• Helps regulate body temperature
• Provides sensory information

muscular system

Major organs:
• Skeletal muscles and associated tendons.
Functions:
• Provides movement
• Provides protection and support for other tissues.
• Generates heat that maintains body temperature

endocrine system

Major Organs:
• Pituitary gland
• Thyroid gland
• Pancreas
• Suprarenal glands
• Gonads (testes and ovaries)
• Endocrine tissues in other systems
Functions:
• Directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems
• Adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body.
• Controls many structural and functional changes during development.

skeletal system

Major Organs:
• Bones
• Cartilages
• Associated ligaments
• Bone marrow

Functions:
• Provides support and protection for other tissues
• Stores calcium and other minerals
• Corms blood cells.

Nervous System

Major Organs:
• Brain
• Spinal cord
• Peripheral nerves
• Sense organs
Functions:
• Directs immediate responses to stimuli.
• Coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems
• Provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions.

Cardiovascular System.

Major Organs:
• Heart
• Blood
• Blood vessels
Functions:
• Distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved materials, including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
• Distributes heat and assists in control of body temperature.

Lymphoid System

Major Organs:
• Spleen
• Thymus
• Lymphatic vessels
• Lymph nodes
• Tonsils
Functions:
• Defends against infection and disease
• Returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream

Digestive System

Major Organs:
• Teeth
• Tongue
• Pharynx
• Esophagus
• Stomach
• Small intestine
• Large intestine
• Liver
• Gallbladder
• Pancreas
Functions
• Processes and digests food
• Absorbs and conserves water
• Absorbs nutrients (ions, water, and the breakdown products of dietary sugars, proteins, and fats)
• Stores energy reserves

Male Reproductive System

Male Organs:
• Testes
• Epididymides
• Ductus deferens
• Seminal vesicles
• Prostate gland
• Penis
• Scrotum
Functions:
• Produces male sex cells (sperm), suspending fluids, and hormones
• Sexual intercourse

Respiratory System

Major Organs:
• Nasal cavities
• Sinuses
• Larynx
• Trachea
• Bronchi
• Lungs
• Alveoli
Functions:
• Delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs)
• Provides oxygen to bloodstream
• Removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream
• Produces sounds for communication.

Urinary System

Major Organs:
• Kidneys
• Ureters
• Urinary bladder
• Urethra
Functions:
• Excretes waste products from the blood
• Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced
• Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination
• Regulates blood ion concentrations and pH

Female Reproduction System

Major Organs:
• Ovaries
• Uterine tubes
• Uterus
• Vagina
• Labia
• Clitoris
• Mammary glands
Functions:
• Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones
• Supports developing embryo from conception to delivery
• Provides milk to nourish newborn infant
• Sexual intercourse

Diaphragm

divides the ventral cavity and an inferior compartment known as abdominopelvic (peritoneal cavity).

7) Abdominal cavity:

contains many digestive glands and organs.

cranial cavity

surrounds the brain

spinal cavity

surrounds the spinal cord

visceral pericardium

inner lining of heart

dorsal

the _____ cavity includes the cranial and vertebral (spinal) cavity.

lenses

ocular

objective lenses

different magnifying lenses on microscope

nucleolus

Production of ribosomes

chromatin

contains DNA which is genetic material for the cell.

plasma membrane

1. separates cellular structures from the tissues and fluids outside the cell.
2. regulates the transport of substances into and out of the cell.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

produces proteins that are secreted by the cell, incorporated into the plasma membrane, or used by lysosomes.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

1. synthesis of lipids and steroids
2. detoxification of poisons and drugs.

golgi apparatus

modifies and packages proteins that are produced by the rough endoplasmic reticulum

transport vesicles

transport proteins from the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Golgi Apparatus

secretory vesicles

transport proteins from the golgi apparatus to the plasma (cell) membrane for cellular secretion.

Lysosomes

1.Digest old, worn-out organelles
2. destroy harmful bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

peroxisomes

1. neutralize toxins produced by cellular metabolism or taken in from the outside.
2. Break down fatty acids.

mitochondria

produce most of the cell's energy in the form of ATP

free ribosomes

produce proteins used for cellular metabolism

cytoskeleton

provides strength and flexibility to the cell and support for the various other organelles

centrioles

1. produce microtubules for the cytoskeleton.
2. form the bases from which cilia and flagella are produced
3. form the mitotic spindle for mitosis

cilia

move substances over cell surfaces

flagella

used for cell locomotion; in humans, found only on sperm cells.

microvilli

increases surface area along cell membrane of cells that absorb substances.

simple diffusion

Net movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. (transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide across a cell membrane)

osmosis

Simple diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane (movement of water into and out of cells to maintain osmotic balance)

facilitated diffusion

same as simple diffusion, bu the transported substance must attach to a transport protein in the cell membrane. (transport of glucose into cells)

filtration

movement of an aqueous (water) solution along a pressure gradient, from an area of high hydrostatic pressure to an area of low hydrostatic pressure. (the movement of fluids out of capillary beds; the filtering of blood by the kidney)

active transport

movement of substances against a concentration gradient (from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration). A transport protein molecule in the membrane is required. (the sodium-potassium pump)

vesicular (bulk) transport

movement across a membrane of large particles and macromolecules. The transported substance is enclosed by a vesicle.

endocytosis

Large particles and macromolecules are transported into a cell.

phagocytosis

endocytosis of undissolved particles such as bacteria, cell debris, or large proteins. (The ingestion of bacteria and viruses by macrophages and white blood cells)

pinocytosis

endocytosis of liquid droplets with dissolved solutes. (absorption of some nutrients by cells in the small intestine)

receptor-mediated endocytosis

endocytosis in which the transported substance must bind to a specific membrane receptor. (the transport of cholesterol into cells)

exocytosis

the secretion of a substance from a cell. (release of hormones by endocrine cells; release of neurotransmitter by nerve cells)

factors affecting diffusion

1. size of particles
2.temperature of the system
3. polarity of the substance being transported

osmosis

A special case of simple diffusion. It talks about the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

hypotonic solution

a solution with a lower total solute concentration.

hypertonic solution

a solution with a higher total solute concentration .

solute

substance that dissolves when added to another substance.

solvent.

the substance that dissolves the solute.

isotonic solution

Under normal conditions, the cells in our body are exposed to ____________-. This means that the solute concentration of the cytoplasm is about the same of extracellular fluid.

functions of epithelial tissue.

1. protection
2. secretion
3. absorption
4. sensory reception
5. filtration

simple squamous

1. Inner lining of blood vessels (endothelium)
2. Lining of body cavities (mesothelium)

simple cuboidal

1. Renal tubules (kidney)
2. Secretory portion of glands
3. liver cells

simple columnar

Inner lining of much of the digestive tract (stomach, small and large intestines)

pseudostratified columnar

Inner lining of trachea and large airways in lung.

stratified squamous

1. epidermis of the skin
2. inner lining of esophagus
3. inner lining of vaginal canal

stratified cuboidal

Ducts of sweat, mammary, and salivary glands.

stratified columnar

1. small portion of male urethra
2. some large ducts of glands

transitional epithelial

Inner lining of urinary tract (urinary bladder, ureter, and part of urethra)

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