mouth or oral
front of elbow
digits or phalanges
fingers or toes
back of elbow
back of knee
heel of foot
sole of foot
closer to the trunk
farther from the trunk
vertical plane through the middle that separates the body into left and right parts
coronal (frontal) plane
plane that cuts through the cranium and divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
transverse (horizontal) plane
planes that divide the body into superior and inferior portions
• Sweat glands
• Protects against environmental hazards.
• Helps regulate body temperature
• Provides sensory information
• Skeletal muscles and associated tendons.
• Provides movement
• Provides protection and support for other tissues.
• Generates heat that maintains body temperature
• Pituitary gland
• Thyroid gland
• Suprarenal glands
• Gonads (testes and ovaries)
• Endocrine tissues in other systems
• Directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems
• Adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body.
• Controls many structural and functional changes during development.
• Associated ligaments
• Bone marrow
• Provides support and protection for other tissues
• Stores calcium and other minerals
• Corms blood cells.
• Spinal cord
• Peripheral nerves
• Sense organs
• Directs immediate responses to stimuli.
• Coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems
• Provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions.
• Blood vessels
• Distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved materials, including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
• Distributes heat and assists in control of body temperature.
• Lymphatic vessels
• Lymph nodes
• Defends against infection and disease
• Returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream
• Small intestine
• Large intestine
• Processes and digests food
• Absorbs and conserves water
• Absorbs nutrients (ions, water, and the breakdown products of dietary sugars, proteins, and fats)
• Stores energy reserves
Male Reproductive System
• Ductus deferens
• Seminal vesicles
• Prostate gland
• Produces male sex cells (sperm), suspending fluids, and hormones
• Sexual intercourse
• Nasal cavities
• Delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs)
• Provides oxygen to bloodstream
• Removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream
• Produces sounds for communication.
• Urinary bladder
• Excretes waste products from the blood
• Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced
• Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination
• Regulates blood ion concentrations and pH
Female Reproduction System
• Uterine tubes
• Mammary glands
• Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones
• Supports developing embryo from conception to delivery
• Provides milk to nourish newborn infant
• Sexual intercourse
divides the ventral cavity and an inferior compartment known as abdominopelvic (peritoneal cavity).
7) Abdominal cavity:
contains many digestive glands and organs.
surrounds the brain
surrounds the spinal cord
inner lining of heart
the _____ cavity includes the cranial and vertebral (spinal) cavity.
different magnifying lenses on microscope
Production of ribosomes
contains DNA which is genetic material for the cell.
1. separates cellular structures from the tissues and fluids outside the cell.
2. regulates the transport of substances into and out of the cell.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
produces proteins that are secreted by the cell, incorporated into the plasma membrane, or used by lysosomes.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
1. synthesis of lipids and steroids
2. detoxification of poisons and drugs.
modifies and packages proteins that are produced by the rough endoplasmic reticulum
transport proteins from the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Golgi Apparatus
transport proteins from the golgi apparatus to the plasma (cell) membrane for cellular secretion.
1.Digest old, worn-out organelles
2. destroy harmful bacteria, viruses, and toxins.
1. neutralize toxins produced by cellular metabolism or taken in from the outside.
2. Break down fatty acids.
produce most of the cell's energy in the form of ATP
produce proteins used for cellular metabolism
provides strength and flexibility to the cell and support for the various other organelles
1. produce microtubules for the cytoskeleton.
2. form the bases from which cilia and flagella are produced
3. form the mitotic spindle for mitosis
move substances over cell surfaces
used for cell locomotion; in humans, found only on sperm cells.
increases surface area along cell membrane of cells that absorb substances.
Net movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. (transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide across a cell membrane)
Simple diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane (movement of water into and out of cells to maintain osmotic balance)
same as simple diffusion, bu the transported substance must attach to a transport protein in the cell membrane. (transport of glucose into cells)
movement of an aqueous (water) solution along a pressure gradient, from an area of high hydrostatic pressure to an area of low hydrostatic pressure. (the movement of fluids out of capillary beds; the filtering of blood by the kidney)
movement of substances against a concentration gradient (from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration). A transport protein molecule in the membrane is required. (the sodium-potassium pump)
vesicular (bulk) transport
movement across a membrane of large particles and macromolecules. The transported substance is enclosed by a vesicle.
Large particles and macromolecules are transported into a cell.
endocytosis of undissolved particles such as bacteria, cell debris, or large proteins. (The ingestion of bacteria and viruses by macrophages and white blood cells)
endocytosis of liquid droplets with dissolved solutes. (absorption of some nutrients by cells in the small intestine)
endocytosis in which the transported substance must bind to a specific membrane receptor. (the transport of cholesterol into cells)
the secretion of a substance from a cell. (release of hormones by endocrine cells; release of neurotransmitter by nerve cells)
factors affecting diffusion
1. size of particles
2.temperature of the system
3. polarity of the substance being transported
A special case of simple diffusion. It talks about the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
a solution with a lower total solute concentration.
a solution with a higher total solute concentration .
substance that dissolves when added to another substance.
the substance that dissolves the solute.
Under normal conditions, the cells in our body are exposed to ____________-. This means that the solute concentration of the cytoplasm is about the same of extracellular fluid.
functions of epithelial tissue.
4. sensory reception
1. Inner lining of blood vessels (endothelium)
2. Lining of body cavities (mesothelium)
1. Renal tubules (kidney)
2. Secretory portion of glands
3. liver cells
Inner lining of much of the digestive tract (stomach, small and large intestines)
Inner lining of trachea and large airways in lung.
1. epidermis of the skin
2. inner lining of esophagus
3. inner lining of vaginal canal
Ducts of sweat, mammary, and salivary glands.
1. small portion of male urethra
2. some large ducts of glands
Inner lining of urinary tract (urinary bladder, ureter, and part of urethra)