Science Chpt. 7 Sect.1

Created by nataliekeller 

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What is a virus?

a tiney nonliving particle that invades and then multiplies inside a living cell.

Are viruses cells?

Viruses are not cells

What is the one characteristic that viruses share with organisms?

they can multiply

Where can viruses only multiply in?

when they are inside a living cell

Are any organisms safe from viruses?

no organisms are safe from viruses

What is the organism call where a virus can multiply in call?

a host

What is a host?

a living thing that provides a source of energy for a virus.

What do viruses act like?

a parasite

Whta is a parasite?

an organism that live on or in a host and cause it harm

What do almost all viruses do to host cells?

they destroy the host cells

Are viruses smaller than host cells?

yes, viruses are smaller than host cells

What is the robot-like virus that infects bacteria called?

Bacteriophage

What is a Bacteriophage?

A virus that infects bacteria

What are the two basic parts of a virus?

A protien coat and genectic material

What does a virus's genectic material contain?

the instructions for making new viruses

What is the function of the protein coat?

an outer coat to protect the virus

What does the shape of the surface proteins allow the virus to do?

the shape of the surface protien allows it to attach "lock" itself on to certain cells in a host

What are the viruses protieins like?

like "keys" that fit only into certain "locks" or proteins, on the surface of a host's cells

Because the lock-and-key action of a virus is specific

a certain virus can attach only to one or a few types of cells

Most cold viruses infect cells where?

only in the nose and throat of humans

When can a virus attach itself to a cell?

only if the virus' surface proteins can fit those on the cell

What information does a virus' genectic material contain?

instructions for making new viruses

What does the Virus's outer membrane proteins lock onto?

the host cells surface proteins

Some viruses are also surrounded by and additional out membrane called what?

envelope

After a virus attaches to a host cell what does it do?

it enters the host cell

Once a virus is inside a host cell what happens?

a virus's genetic material takes over many of the cell's funtions.

When a virus's genetic material takes over a cell's function what does it do?

It instructs the cell to produce the virus's proteins and genectic material.

What do the proteins and genetic materials assemble into once made inside a host cell?

new viruses

What are the two types of viruses that can attack a cell?

Active Viruses and Hidden Viruses

What is an Active Virus?

it immediately goes into action

Once the virus goes into the host cell where does it go?

into its genetic material

What does the virus's genetic material do to the host cell?

it takes over the cells functions and starts to produce the virus's proteins and genectic material?

What does the invade cell start doing when the virus invades it?

it acts like a "photcopy machine" and makes copy after copy of the new virus

When the host cell if full of the new virus what happens to it?

the host cell bursts open releasing hundreds of new viruses and dies

What is a Hidden Virus?

Viruses that do not immediately become active in a host cell

What do the Hidden Virus do in the new cell?

they hide

Where do the Hidden Viurses hide?

in the host cells genectic material

After the Hidden Virus invades the host cell what does it do?

it become part of the host cell's genetic material

In a Hidden Virus what happens to it when the host cell divides?

the virus's genetic material is copies along with the host's genetic material

When a Hidden Virus becomes active what does it act like?

an Active Virus

What is an example of a Hidden Virus?

a cold sore

What activates the Hidden Virus of a cold sore?

sunlight or stress

Where in a host cell does a hidden virus "hide" while it is inactive?

in the genetic material of the cell

What can viruses cause?

diseases

Can plants and animals get viruses?

yes

What are the four way Viral Diseases can spread?

Contact with a contaminated object, bite of an infected animal, moisture droplets from sneezes and coughs, and contact with body fluids, like blood from an infected person

Are there any cures for viral diseases?

no

What is the best treatment for viral infections?

bed rest.

What are the three best things one must do to treat a viral infection?

bed rest, drink plenty of fluids, and eating a well-balanced meal

When you have a virus we can only do what?

treat the symptoms with over-the counter medications like advil

How do you prevent the spread of Viral Diseases?

by getting a vaccine

What is a Vaccine?

a substance introduced into the body to stimulate the production of chemicals that destroy specific disease-causing viruses and organisms

Why don't vaccines cause disease themselves?

the vaccines are weakened or altered viruses

What do vaccines contain?

an altered or weakened virus

What does a vaccine do?

tirgger the body's natural defenses and puts the body on "alert"

What are some examples of Viral Diseases?

polio, measles, and chichen pox

What are some ways to protect ourselves from getting a viral disease?

keeping a healthy body (rest, fluids, exercise), and by washing hands often and not sharing eating or drinking utensils

How are viruses simliar to organisms?

they can multiply

What basic structures do all viruses share?

protein coat and an inner core with genectic material

What role do the proteins in a virus's outer coat play in the invasion of a host cell?

it allows the virus to attach itself to the host cell like a key on the outer protein coat which locks onto the hosts cells surface protein cell

What are the additional steps that occur when a hidden virus multiplies?

it first hides in the genectic material and is copied when the cell divides and becomes unhidden when it is triggered to do so

How are vaccines important in preventing viral diseases?

helps prevent the spread

Baceriophages are viruses that attack and destroy what?

bacteria

Which part of a virus determines which host cells it can infect?

surface proteins

Most bacteria are surrounded by a figid protective structure calles what

protein coat

What is a virus called when it enters a cell and immediately begins to multiply?

Active virus

What will most likely happen after the virus attaches to the bacterial cell?

the virus will inject its genetic material into the bacterial cell

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