13th Amendment - Ratified 1865
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
14th Amendment - Ratified 1868
Gave citizenship to all people born and naturalized in American (not Native Americans). Punishes states for denying vote, and disqualifies Confederate officials and debts.
15th Amendment - Ratified 1870
This amendment granted black men the right to vote. Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude.
It was to be a welfare agency. It provided food, clothes, and education to freedman and to white refuge. Union General, Oliver O. Howard founded the program. Taught 200,000 blacks to read, expired in 1872.
Voting Restrictions - Poll Tax
Southern states imposed a fee on voters at the ballot box. This prevented poor freedmen from voting as they could not afford it.
Voting Restrictions - Literacy test
Southern States imposed this document and asked voters to read and explain sections to pass. Most freedmen failed as they could not read or write.
Voting Restrictions - Grandfather Clauses
Southern states passed this law to enabled whites the right to vote if their father/grandfather has been allowed to vote on Jan 1, 1867 and waived the literacy test.
Ku Klux Klan
a secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep african americans from obtaining their civil rights
Northerner who traveled south to make money off of the Reconstruction
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops
Jim Crow Laws
rigid set of rules known as this governed all aspects of the existence of black citizens from the schoolroom to the restroom