Leadership Exam Review
|deviance||any behavior, belief, or condition that violates important societal norms in a society or group in which it occurs|
|deviant||people are reffered to as ______ if they express a raical/unusual belief system|
|stigma||a physical or societal attribute or sign which so devalues a person's social identity that it disqualifies the person from full social acceptance|
|social audience||determinces whether or not any episode(s) are labled as deviant|
|degree of seriousness||what deviant behavior varies in|
|juvenile delinquency||refers to violation of law or the commission of status offense by young people, like cutting school or running away from home|
|social control||systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws to discourage deviance|
|internal control||takes place through socialization, internalize norms and values of how people should follow them|
|external control||involves the use of negative sanctions/punishment for rule breakers|
|Durkheim||a functionalist, said that deviance was rooted in societal factors like rapid change or lack of integration|
|Anomie||a social condition with a sense of futility because social norms are weak, absent, or conflicting|
|decreases, increases||as social integration [blank], deviance [blank]|
|clarifies rules, unites groups, promotes societal change||the three functions of deviance according to contemporary functionalists|
|strain theory||developed by Merton, said that people feel strain when exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they don't have access to culturally approved means of achieving these goals|
|conformity||accepts culturally approved goals, pursues through culturally approved means|
|innovation||accepts culturally approved goals, purses through disapproved means|
|ritualism||abandons society's goals but continues to conform to approved means, "hard worker"|
|retreatism||abandons both goals and approved means to achieve them|
|rebellion||challenges both approved goals and the means to achieve them, engages in acts of violence|
|illigitimate opportunity structures||circumstances that provide the opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they can't achieve through letitimate channels|
|social dynamite||people who have been marginalized (rioters, labor organizers, gang members, criminals)|
|social junk||members of stigmatized groups such as welfare recipients, homeless, and disabled|
|those in power||who norms and laws are established for, according to conflict perspective|
|Conflict Perspective||says that laws and criminal justice system protect the power and privlige of the capitalist class|
|privilege||posession of what is most valued by a particular social group in a given historical pretext|
|Conflict Perspective||says that the capitalist class committs crimes due to greed|
|Conflict Perspective||say that the poor comit crimes to survive because they can't afford the essentials|
|Liberal Feminist Approach||says that a woman's deviance and crime are a rational response to gender discrimination in families and the workplace|
|Radical Feminist Approach||views women's crime as originating in patirarchy- things like prostitution show society's double standards|
|Marxist||says that women are exploited by capitalism and patriarchy|
|Differential Association||a symbolic interactionis theory that states that people have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with individuals who are more favorable towards deviance than conformity|
|Rational Choice Theory||a symbolic interactionist theory that states that deviant behavior occurs when a person weighs the costs and benefits of nonconventional or criminal behavior and determines the benefits will outweigh the costs|
|Rational Choice theory||explains why high-risk youth don't alwasy engage in delinquent acts, applies to all social groups|
|Control Theory||says that society produces pressures that move people towards criminal behavior|
|inner containments||self control, responsibility, and resistance to diversions|
|outer containments||supportive family and friends, reasonable social expectations, and supervisions|
|social bond theory||holds the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person's ties to society are weakened or broken|
|Labeling Theory||the proposition that deviants are people who have been successfully labeled by others|
|Moral entrepreneurs||are the ones who create rules about what constitutes deviant or conventional behavior|
|primary deviance||the initial act of rule-breaking|
|secondary deviance||the process that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts the new identity and continues in deviant behaviors|
|tertiary deviance||occurs when a person labeled a deviant seeks to normalize behavior by relabling it as non-deviant|
|example of nonmaterial culture||language|
|Sociologists define __________ as the knowledge, techniques, and tools that make it possible for people to transform resources into usable forms, and the knowledge and skills required to use them after they are developed.||technology|
|When Winston Churchill held up his index and middle fingers in the shape of a "V," this gesture implied victory in battle; the same gesture, displayed by demonstrators during the Vietnam war, implied "peace." Both of these gestures exemplify:||symbols|
|represent(s) a set of symbols that express ideas and enable people to think and communicate with one another.||language|
|From the __________ perspective, a shared language is essential to a common culture; language is a stabilizing force in society.||functionalist|
|are collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture.||norms|
| Which of the following is NOT a core American value? |
C) A de-emphasis on material possessions
D) Racism and group superiority
|a de-emphasis on material possesions|
| Which of the following reflect core American values? |
A) Faith in science and technology
B) Progress and material comfort
C) Efficiency and practicality
D) All of the above are core American values.
|all of the above are core american values|
|"American society stands for equal opportunity for all." This statement exemplifies __________ culture||ideal|
|People may claim to be law-abiding, but they engage in behaviors that are illegal. This exemplifies __________ culture.||real|
|Which of the following statements regarding norms is TRUE? |
A) All norms are of equal importance.
B) Folkways are the most common type of norms.
C) Norms do not have specific behavioral expectations.
D) Prescriptive norms state what behavior is appropriate or acceptable while proscriptive norms state what behavior is inappropriate or unacceptable.
|D) Prescriptive norms state what behavior is appropriate or acceptable while proscriptive norms state what behavior is inappropriate or unacceptable.|
|A woman is named "Citizen of the Year" in her home community. This exemplifies a:||positive sanction|
|Unwritten standards of behavior understood by people who share a common identity are referred to as:||informal norms|
|During a sermon in church, a parishioner begins to talk to the person sitting next to her in an audible tone of voice. A man in another pew turns around, frowns at her, and says "Shhhhhhhh." This illustrates a/an:||informal sanction|
|In the United States, using underarm deodorant, brushing our teeth, and wearing appropriate clothing for a specific occasion are all illustrations of:||folkways|
|The text points out that folkways:||may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture|
|The strongest mores are referred to as:||taboos|
|Formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions are known as:||laws|
|All of the following statements regarding laws are correct, except: |
A) Changes in law often reflect changes in culture.
B) Criminal law deals with disputes among persons or groups.
C) Laws are enforced by formal sanctions.
D) Fines and prison sentences are the most likely negative sanctions when criminal laws are violated.
|Criminal law deals with disputes among persons or groups.|
|__________ law deals with public safety and well-being.||civil|
|Classical music, opera, ballet, and live theater are all examples of __________ culture.||high|
|Rock concerts, spectator sports, movies, and television soap operas are all examples of __________ cult||popular|
|__________ are temporary but widely copied activities followed enthusiastically by large numbers of people||popular culture form|
|Silly Putty, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, hula hoops, mood rings, and body piercing of the nipples and genitals are all examples of:||fads|
|Soccer is an example of a __________ in sports||fashion|
|A __________ is a currently valued style of behavior, thinking, or appearance that is longer lasting and more widespread than a fad.||fashion|
|The second largest export in the United States is __________.||popular culture|
|__________ is the process of learning about something previously unknown or unrecognized.||discovery|
|In contemporary society, the process of discovery most often results from:||scientific research|
|The popularity of piñatas in China, Italy, Spain, Mexico, the United States, and other nations is an exam||cultural diffusion|
|Cultural __________ refers to a gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions.||lag|
|The United States is appropriately referred to as a/an __________ society.||heterogeneous|
|A/an __________ is a group of people who share a distinctive set of cultural beliefs and behaviors that differ in some significant way from that of the larger society.||subculture|
| The text points out that the Old Order Amish: |
A) have fought for many years to maintain their distinct subcultural identity.
B) first arrived in the United States during the early 1700s.
C) are heavily concentrated today in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana.
D) all of the above.
|d0 all of the above|
|During Olympic Games competition, the spirits of nationalism and patriotism encourage people to think of their own nation as "the best." This illustrates the principle of:||ethnocentrism|
|The belief that the behaviors and customs of a society must be viewed and analyzed within the context of its own culture is referred to as:||cultural relativism|
|According to the functionalist perspective on culture: |
A) some societies do not have dysfunctions because people share a common language and core values.
B) societies in which people share a common language and core values are more likely to have consensus and harmony.
C) people create, maintain, and modify culture as they go about their everyday activities.
D) values and norms help create and sustain the privileged position of the powerful in society while excluding others.
|societies in which people share a common language and core values are more likely to have consensus and harmony.|
|One strength of the conflict perspective in examining culture is that :||C) it stresses how cultural values and norms may perpetuate social inequalities.|
|The symbolic interactionist perspective on culture:||) focuses on a microlevel analysis.|
|According to the postmodern perspective:||no single perspective can grasp the complexity and diversity of the social world.|
|A __________ is a group of people, usually young, who band together for purposes generally considered to be deviant or criminal by the larger society.||gang|
|The text defines deviance as any:||D) behavior, belief, or condition that violates cultural norms.|
|A ________ is a behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with negative sanctions.||crime|
|A) behavioral deviance is based on a person's intentional or inadvertent actions. |
B) people may be regarded as deviant if they express a radical or unusual belief system.
C) people may be regarded as deviant because of specific characteristics or conditions that they have had since birth or have acquired.
D) definitions of deviance are similar from place to place, from time to time, and from group to group.
|) definitions of deviance are similar from place to place, from time to time, and from group to group|
|__________ refers to a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people.||Juvenile delinquency|
|All of the various practices in which society develops and enforces societal norms are termed:||social control|
|The police, the courts, and the prisons are examples of:||C) external social control.|
|Which of the following is more likely to take place through the socialization process?||internal social control|
|According to the functionalist perspective, deviance serves all of the following functions||clarifies rules, unites a group, promotes social change|
|A public execution illustrates which function of deviance?||clarifies rules|
|According to the text, acts of civil disobedience exemplify which function of deviance||promotes social change|
|People are sometimes exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals. This assertion is part of __________ theory||strain theory|
|modes of adaptation by rob ert merton||confomity, revellion, innovation, retreatism, ritualism|
|A young woman graduates from high school with honors and attends a prestigious university, where she completes her degree; she gets a good job; she marries and starts planning for the future. This woman's behavior illustrates:||confomity|
|A socioeconomically disadvantaged teenager decides that she must resort to crime in order to buy some clothes she wants. This illustrates:||innovation|
|According to Robert Merton's strain theory, ______ occurs when people give up on societal goals but still adhere to the socially approved means of achieving them.||ritualism|
|Skid-row alcoholics and drug addicts reflect a pattern of||reatrism|
|A minister who is opposed to war conducts a nonviolent protest at a local military installation, thus committing a trespassing violation. This person has engaged in:||rebellion|
|A youngster living in the ghetto is unlikely to become wealthy through a Harvard education, but some of his desires may be met through behaviors like theft, drug dealing, and robbery. This illustrates:||illegitimate opportunity structures|
|The __________ theory of deviance states that deviate behavior occurs when a person weighs the costs and benefits of deviant behavior and determines that the benefits outweigh the risks involved.||rational choice|
|components of social bonding||attachment to other people, commitment to confomity, involvement in conventional acttivities, belief in cultural norms|
|According to __________ theory, deviants are those people who have been successfully labeled as such by others.||labeling|
|Suppose that a person who is smoking marijuana is labeled as a "stoner," and subsequently, she accepts this label and socializes only with others who use marijuana on a regular basis. This exemplifies __________ deviance.||secondary|
| 24. |
The critical approach argues that criminal law:
|protects interest of affluent and powerful|
|Prostitution might be explained as a reflection of society's double standard, whereby it is acceptable for a man to pay for sex but unacceptable for a woman to accept money for such services. This explanation reflects a __________ feminist approach.||radical|
|Socialization is a lifelong process.||true|
|Social scientists generally agree that no person is born to be an abuser.||true|
|__________ is the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.||socialization|
|The systematic study of how biology affects social behavior is referred to as:||sociobiology|
|Children whose biological and emotional needs are met view the world:||as a safe and comfortable place|
|The experiments of Harry Harlow and Margaret Harlow demonstrated that:||isolation has detrimental effects on nonhuman primates|
|Sigmund Freud divided the mind into three interrelated parts||id, ego, superego|
|According to Sigmund Freud, the __________ is the component of personality that includes all of the individual's basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification.||id|
|According to Freud, the __________ is the rational, reality-oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure-seeking drives of individuals.||ego|
| According to Freud, the __________, or conscience, consists of the moral and ethical aspects of personality. |
|Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget was a pioneer in the field of __________, which relates to changes over time in how people think.||cognitive development|
|A body builder admires her muscular physique while standing in front of a mirror; she thinks to herself, "I am muscular and strong." This perception is part of the woman's:||self-identity|
| __________ refers to the way in which a person's sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others. |
A) Personality development
|the looking glass self|
|All of the following are steps in the looking-glass process|| We imagine how our personality and appearance will look to other people. |
B) We imagine how other people judge the appearance and personality that we think we present.
C) We develop a self-concept.
|__________ refers to the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from that person's point of view.||role-taking|
|__________ others are those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are most important in the development of self.||significant|
|__________ are the persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society.||agents of socialization|
|According to the text, the __________ is the most important agent of socialization in all societies.||family|
|According to sociologist Melvin Kohn, one of the strongest influences on what and how parents teach their children is:||social class|
|Preschool programs increasingly have become important agents of socialization because more than _______ percent of all U.S. preschool children now are in some form of day care.||50|
|According to sociologists Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis, much of what happens in school amounts to teaching a/an __________ in which children learn to be neat, to be on time, to be quiet, to wait their turn, and to remain attentive to their work.||hidden curriculum|
|The text notes that one of the effects of education is that students from upper income and wealthy families:||A) acquire different skills and knowledge than working-class and middle-class students.|
|A __________ group is a group of people who are linked by common interests, equal social position, and (usually) similar age.||peer|
|Peer groups function as agents of socialization by:||contributing to people's sense of belonging and self-worth.|
|In the text, it is observed that throughout childhood and adolescence, boys and girls typically are assigned different household chores and given different privileges. This illustrates||gender socialization|
|The value of all of a person's or family's economic assets is known as:||wealth|
|According to the text's discussion of wealth, poverty, and the American Dream:||A) as a group, children have a higher rate of poverty than the elderly.|
|In regard to the unequal distribution of income and wealth in the United States, the text notes that:||) the wealthiest 20 percent of households receive almost 50 percent of the total income "pie."|
|wqhat are the components of wealth||income, land, ionsurance policies|
|Both Marx and Weber identified ___________ as an important determinant of social inequality and social change.||race|
|According to Karl Marx __________ is a feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneself.||alienation|
|According to Karl Marx, the government, schools, churches, and other social institutions that produce and disseminate ideas perpetuating the existing system of exploitation can be broadly referred to as society's:||superstructure`|
|According to sociologist Ralf Dahrendorf, workers have not overthrown capitalism as Karl Marx had predicted because:||capitalism has changed significatnly since marx's time|
|All of the following statements regarding Max Weber's view of stratification are TRUE, except: |
A) he disagreed with Karl Marx's assertion that economic factors are important in understanding people's behavior.
B) he developed a multidimensional approach that focuses on the interplay among wealth, prestige, and power in determining a person's class position.
C) he divided those who work for wages into the middle-class and the working-class.
D) he suggested that bureaucracies were so powerful that even a workers' revolution would not lessen social inequality.
|A) he disagreed with Karl Marx's assertion that economic factors are important in understanding people's behavior.|
|In Max Weber's stratification typology, wealthy bankers, ship owners, professionals, and merchants are in the social class of:||entrepreneurs|
|In Max Weber's stratification typology, wealthy individuals who live off their investments and do not have to work are in the social class of:||rentiers|
|In Max Weber's stratification typology, the __________ class consists of skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled workers.||working|
|__________ is the respect or regard with which a person or status position is regarded by others.||prestige|
| __________ is the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others. |
|In a comparison of Weber's and Marx's perspectives on social stratification, the text notes that:||) Weber added to Marx's insights by developing a multidimensional explanation of the class structure and identifying additional classes.|
|Sociologists often employ a combined measure that attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of indicators such as income, occupation, and education to determine class location. This measure is called:||soioeconomic status(SES)|
|Dennis Gilbert and Joseph A. Kahl's model of social class structure is based upon||income, occupation, education|
|In the United States, the names Rockefeller, Melton, DuPont, and Kennedy represent the __________ class.||upper-upper|
|According to your text, all of the following are factors that have eroded the American Dream for the middle class|| A) escalating housing prices. |
B) blocked mobility on the job.
C) the cost-of-living squeeze.
|The text points out that included in the working class are __________ occupations relatively low-paying, nonmanual, semiskilled positions primarily held by women||pink collar|
|According to Dennis Gilbert and Joseph A. Kahl's (functionalist) model of the class structure, clerks and salespeople and some workers in the service sector are in the __________ class.||working|
|According to Dennis Gilbert, people who are poor, seldom employed, and caught in long-term deprivation are in the:||underclass|
|The earliest Marxian model of measuring class||A) identifies ownership or nonownership of the means of production as the distinguishing feature of classes.|
|According to Erik Olin Wright's Marxian model of the class structure:||Marx's category of "capitalist" is far too broad.|
|According to Erik Olin Wright's Marxian model, all of the following are criteria for placement in the class structure|| ) sale of one's own labor. ) ownership of the means of production. |
B) purchase of the labor of others.
|According to Erik Olin Wright's Marxian model, persons in the capitalist class:||own banks, corporations, and agribusiness firms.|
|All of the following classes were identified by Erik Olin Wright|| A) capitalist. |
|In Erik Olin Wright's (conflict) model, secretaries, other clerical workers and sales workers are considered to be members of the:||white-collar fraction of the working class|
|Which of the following is INACCURATE concerning the health characteristics of poor people in the United States? A) The poor have shorter life expectancies. |
B) Children born into poor families are at much greater risk of dying during their first year of life.
C) Through welfare benefits, most of the poor receive preventive medical and dental checkups.
D) The poor are at greater risk for heart disease and cancer than more affluent persons.
|C) Through welfare benefits, most of the poor receive preventive medical and dental checkups.|
|All of the following statements regarding medical services in high-poverty areas are TRUE,||many high-poverty areas lack an adequate supply of doctors and medical facilities. poor people often feel stigmatized when they seek care at "charity" clinics and hospitals many of the working poor do not have medical insurance.|
|The term ___________ housing refers to facilities that have inadequate heating, plumbing, electricity, air conditioning or structural durability||substandard|
|Those who live in poverty:||) are exposed to more crime and lack of safety than those who do not live in poverty|
|__________ poverty exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.||absolute|
|__________ poverty exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but still are unable to maintain an average standard of living.||relative|
|All of the following statements regarding the relationship between age and poverty are TRUE, except: |
A) older persons are at a much greater risk of living in poverty than are children.
B) older women are twice as likely to be poor as older men.
C) older African Americans and Latinos/as are much more likely to live below the poverty line than are non-Latino/a whites.
D) more than 50 percent of all African American children under age 6 live in poverty.
|) older persons are at a much greater risk of living in poverty than are children.|
|The trend in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty is referred to as:||feminization of poverty|
|major source of poverty is:||low wages paid for many jobs|
|The text observes that corporations have been disinvesting in the United States, displacing millions of people from their jobs. Economists refer to this displacement as the __________ of America.||desindustrialization|
|__________ refers to a reduction in the proficiency needed to perform a specific job that leads to a corresponding reduction in the wages for that job.||job deskilling|
|A __________ is a hierarchy in which all positions are rewarded based on people's ability and credentials.||meritocracy|