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chapter 2 vocab

Enculturation

process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations

Symbols

something, verbal or nonverbal, that stands for something else

Psychic Unity of Mankind

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Agency

actions that individuals take alone and in groups in forming and transforming cultural identities

National culture

cultural features shared by citizens of the same nation

International culture

cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries

Subcultures

identifiable cultural patterns existing within a larger culture

Ethnocentrism

tendency to view one's own culture as superior and to use one's own standards and values in judging outsiders

Diffusion

borrowing of traits between cultures

Acculturation

exchange of features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact

independent invention

process by which humans innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems

Globalization

series of processes that work to make modern nations and people increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent

Core values

key, basic or central values that integrate a culture

Universal

something that exists in very culture

generality

culture pattern or trait that exists in some but not all societies

particularity

distinctive or unique culture trait, pattern, or integration

Cultural relativism

idea that to know another culture requires full understanding of its members' beliefs and motivations

human rights

rights based on justice and morality beyond and superior to particular countries, cultures, and religions

Cultural rights

rights vested in religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies

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