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2011 AP Lang Terms and Learning

allusion

reference to something outside the story

parallel structure

A pattern of similar phrases or clauses used in different parts of a writing to achieve an affect (make the writing more persuasive, powerful, etc...)

Examplum

Use of examples

Timeline

Creating a timeline in using sentences to describe events in the order they occurrred

Massing of Details

Listing lots of details in writing to make a point

Metaphor

Comparing two different things to make a point

Simile

Same as Metaphor, just using like or as

Imagery

Using descriptive words to create a mental image of an idea or circumstances

Preview of Main Points

A Sentence that tells the reader the main ideas of the essay that are coming up

Thesis

Main idea of any writing

Transition

A sentence or group of words used to tell the reader that the writer is changing ideas

Tying to the Prompt

Explaining how the example or sub-argument answers the prompt(Very Important)

Alliteration

Repetitive use of same-sounding letters in successive phrases, clauses, or sentences.

Consonance

Repetitive use of same-sounding CONSONANTS in successive phrases, clauses, or sentences..

Assonance

Repetitive use of same-sounding VOWELS in successive phrases, clauses, or sentences.

Anaphora

Repetitive use of the same WORDS at the BEGINNINGs of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences.

Epistrophe

Repetitive use of the same WORDS at the ENDINGs of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences.

anecdote

personal story

anecdotal evidence

personal story evidence (it is always appropriate on an essay test)

simple repetition

repeating a word, phrase or clause for emphasis and/or persuasive power "Let freedom ring...let freedom ring...let freedom ring."

rhythm

the use of words with similar-sounding syllables for emphasis and/or persuasive power

similar clauses

clauses that have similar word patterns(e.g., I came. I saw. I conquered.)

parallelism

the repetition of similar words, phrases, clauses, rhythm, or rhyme, to build persuasive power(to win over the audience)

syntax

the order and pattern of words, phrases, clauses, and punctuation

phrase

any group of words missing either the subject or verb or both

clause

any group of words with both a subject and verb (and usually the stuff around the verb, which--when combined with the verb, are called the verb phrase)

dependent phrase

a phrase that cannot stand alone(phrases are missing either a subject or a verb)

dependent clause

a clause that is worded in such a way that it cannot stand by itself even though it HAS a subject and a verb

appositive phrase

a phrase that refers to a noun, usually in the middle of a sentence, set off by commas or dashes

dashes are (Loyaism)

longer than hypens so make sure you do that right.

inverted syntax or inversion

when the subject and verb are in reverse order for effect "Cheese, I like."

Basic Syntax

Subject followed by Verb(S + VP)

Why we need advanced syntax

Because the College English Placement test REQUIRES IT!

epistolary

of or relating to letter-writing

epistemology

the study of knowing reality or truth

legal epistemology

the epistemology which values equal argument, fairness, and dueling points of view

Rogerian epistemology

the style of thinking that values seeing both sides of everything--and valuing both sides in an argument

deduction

Moving from large assumptions to smaller truths; (e.g. All men mortal->Socrates is mortal; morality; religion)

induction

Moving from smallish evidence to larger conclusions(e.g. statistics; generalizations, evidence, criminology)

metonymy

when one intends to speak of an object but just mentions a term linked to it(the Oval Office for President; a badge for a policeman)

abstract

non-tangible idea or concept(God, love, truth, romance)

concrete

tangible or touchable object or concept(car, gift, viewable skills, actions)

active voice

when the subject is the actor or do-er of the sentence: The Cheetah beat the Gorilla.

passive voice

when the subject is being acted upon in the sentence:
The Gorilla Was Beaten by the Cheetah. (Was beaten)

synecdoche

When parts of something are referred to but the intended meaning is the whole object not just the part. "All hands on deck."-->Means all people on deck, not just their hands.

doppleganger

a character's double in a story. Dr. Jekyll is the doppleganger of Mr. Hyde.

apostrophe

a break from the discussion to address a person or personified thing, either present or not present. "O life, hear me."

diacope

repetition of a word or phrase after an intervening word or phrase as a method of emphasis:
•We will do it, I tell you; we will do it.

antimetabole

reversing the order of repeated words or phrases (a loosely chiastic structure, AB-BA) to intensify the final formulation, to present alternatives, or to show contrast:
Do you play to work or work to play?

loose sentence

when the main clause ends in a comma and any number of words that are unessential follow after the comma

periodic sentence

when the main clause is witheld until the end of the sentence, or it can also be that the main clause is interrupted

latent sentence

the main clause or the most important part of the sentence comes at the very end to create suspense or surprise.(Usually of a long sentence) "Over the sands, over the seas, through the forests, through time and space, I traveled."

short syntax

short sentences 5 words or less; staccato-sounding, short, rhythmic.

medium syntax

6 words to 13 words, or so, per sentence.

elongated syntax

long phrases and clauses in sentences; long sentences that hold meaning and slowly carve the meaning to the audience

logical fallacy

a flaw or major issue in reasoning(makes the argument incorrect)

slippery slope argument

an argument that incorrectly says one event will lead to other unrelated terrible events(not doing homework will lead to drugs); the error is that one does not necessarily lead to another

PARODY

a humorous imitation of another, usually serious, work, imitating the tone, language, and shape of the original.(From Satire Set)

INVERSION

a reversal of position, order, form, or relationship(usually humorous to show how silly or ridiculous that thing being made fun of is normally)[From Satire Set}

SATIRE

the literary art of ridiculing something in order to expose or correct it ..(You must know this)

HYPERBOLE

a boldly exaggerated statement or "overstatement" that adds emphasis but is not intended to be literally true. For ex: "He was larger than a Buick.".(From Satire Set)

SARCASM

a form of sneering criticism in which disapproval is often expressed as ironic praise."Oh of course we loved the homework."(From Satire)

PUN

A play on words that relies on a word's having more than one meaning or sounding like another word. "He said puck you, and go to pudruckers!".(From Satire)

UNDERSTATEMENT

a figure of speech that says less than is intended, usually for comic or ironic effect."I only slightly disenjoy being stabbed to death on my wedding day.".(From Satire)

VERBAL IRONY

when someone says or does the opposite of what is expected (--in satire this is used often to ridicule something or someone)

SITUATIONAL IRONY

occurs when there is a discrepancy between what is expected to happen and what actually happens.(From Satire)

INVECTIVE

speech or writing that abuses, denounces, or attacks. It can be directed against a person, cause, idea, or system. [It employs a heavy use of negative emotive language.](From Satire)

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