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basal bodies

located at the base of a cilim or flagellum; identical to cenrtioles, have a triplet arrangement of microtubles but give rise to microtubles with "doublet" arrangement within a cilium or flagellum

centrioles

located with a centrosome; play a role in cell devision; have 27 microtubles arranged in 9 triplets; give rise to and anchor spindle fibers during nuclear division

centrosome

region that contains centrioles and is located near one end of the cell

cilla

short, hair-like projections with 9 pairs of microtubles surrounding a singe pair; arise from basal bodies; propel mucus along mucous membranes in the respiratory tract and oviducts

cytoplasm

all material between the cell membrane and nucleus; includes cytosol and cytoplasmic organelles

cytoskeleton

network of microfilaments (action protein), microtubles (tubulin protein), and intermediate filaments (usually keratin proteins) that form the internal framework of the cell; keeps organelles place; allows the cell to modify its shape; functions in cell division, and serves as "highway" system for the movement of vesicles; myosin motor molecules move toward microfilaments "plus" ends; kinsesin motor molecules move toward microtubules plus ends; dynein motor molecules move toward the microtubles minus end

cytosol

intracellular fluid outside of the nucleus; contains mostly water, but has a colloid consistency

flagellum

long projection of the cell membrane and contains nine pairs of microtubules surrounding one pair; interaction of dynein motor molecules with the microtubles allow flagellum to move sperm cells

Golgi body

"packaging center" for cell; membranous organelle that receives ER vesicles on its cis face; synthesize glycoproteins including hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate; vesicles from the Golgi boy bind with the cell membrane; forms vesicles at its trans face

inclusions

unbound collections of substances in the cytoplasm; examples include glycogen in liver and muscle cells, triglyceride droplets in adipocytes, melanin in melanocytes, keratin in kerarinocytes of the skin, and hemoglobin in red blood cells

lysosomes

specialized vesicles arising from Golgi bodies; contain hydrolase enzymes that digest contents of endocytotic vesicles formed at the cell membrane

mitochondria

double membrane organelles that synthesize most of a cells ATP; has outer compartment between the two membranes; the inner compartment (matrix) separated from the outer compartment by folds called cristae

nuclear membrane

double membrane that enclose the nucleoplasm of the nucleus; continuous with ER's membrane

nucleoli

dark-staining regions in the nucleoplasm where ribosomal RNA molecules and proteins come together to form larger or small ribosomal subunits

nucleoplasm

liquid material inside the nucleus

nucleus

largest organelle in the cell; contains nucleoplasm and nucleoli

organelles

structures within the cytoplasm that are specialized for particular functions, includes the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles

peroxisomes

small spherical organelles that may bud off the ER or may arise from other peroxisomes; contain oxidase enzymes that bind free radicals with hydrogen to form hydrogen peroxide; also contains catalase that reduces hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen

ribosomes

non-membranous organelles consisting of protein and rRNa; sites where all protein synthesis occurs; consist of large and small subunits

endoplasmic reticulum

double-membran channel system; serves as intracellular "highway" for transporting materials; connected to nuclear membrane, rough ER has ribosomes, smooth ER lacks ribosomes synthesizes lipids; hydrolyzes alcohol and drugs; in muscle cells, smooth ER stores Ca2+ ions

vesicles

membranous organelles from ER or Golgi body; also from cell membrane

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