Chapter 8- The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance

42 terms by roxy481 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

jfrea

genome

the complete genetic material contained in an individual

asexual reproduction

process by which a single parent reproduces by itself to form 2 identical daughter cells

sexual reproduction

process by which chromosomes from two parents go into the genes of the daughter cells

chromosome

threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next

binary fission

the division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells

chromatin

granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins

sister chromatids

two daughter strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the middle by a centromere

centromere

area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached

cell cycle

series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

interphase

stage when genetic material duplicates, and chromosomes become visible

mitotic phase

the part of the cell cycle when the cell actually divides

mitosis

process where a cell divides into 2 daughter cells

cytokinesis

stage where the cytoplasm divides, forming daughter cells

prophase

stage the cell is in the longest; mitotic spindle forms, centrosomes migrate to opposite ends; chromatin coils into chromosomes; nuclear membrane disperses

metaphase

stage where spindle is formed; chromosomes line up along the plate

anaphase

stage where chromosomes separate from the centromere, dividing to arrive at poles

telophase

stage when cleavage furrow forms;nuclear envelope forms,and chromosomes uncoil

centrosomes

material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during the cell division

growth factor

a protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide

density-dependent inhibition

when cells stop growing because they come in contact with another

anchorage dependence

in order to divide, a cell must be attached to a solid surface

cell cycle control system

a cyclically operating set of proteins that triggers and coordinates events in the eukaryotic cell cycle

tumor

an abnormal mass of cells that forms within otherwise normal tissue

benign tumor

an abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body

malignant tumor

an abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and to other parts of the body; a cancerous tumor

metastasis

the spread of cancer cells beyond their original site

carcinoma

cancer that originates in the coverings of the body, such as the skin or the lining of the intestinal tract

sarcoma

cancer of the supportive tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and muscle

leukemia

a type of cancer of the blood-forming tissues, characterized by an excessive production of white blood cells

lymphoma

cancer of the tissues that form white blood cells

nondisjunction

a disorder where there are abnormal number of chromosomes due to failure of chromosome pairs to seperate

diploid cells

Cells that have two sets of chromosomes (23 pair in humans, 46 total)

gametes

sex/ reproductive cells, have only half the number of chromosomes as body cells

haploid cells

A cell containing only one set of chromosomes; result of meiosis

tetrads

the paired chromosomes consisting of four chromatids

meiosis 1

when homologous chromosomes are paired, and are crossed over; divides into 2 daughter cells with 1 set of chromosomes with 2 chromatids each
(which part)

crossing over

exchange of corresponding segments between 2 homologous chromosomes

chiasma

the site of crossing over, where 2 homologous chromosomes are attached to eachother

meiosis 2

when sister chromatids of each chromosome seprate to form 4 cells, each with half as many chromosomes as parent. (which part)

down syndrome

a disorder where a person has an extra copy of a chromosome

mitosis and cytokinesis

what are the 2 main stages of cell division?

too big

when a cell becomes ____, it can form a tumor and invade other tissues

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set