sir walter raleigh's failed colonial settlement off the coast of north carolina
virginia, the first colony was founded in 1607
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
later known as Rebecca Rolfe, was a Virginia Indian chief's daughter, assisted colonial settlers at Jamestown and saved Captain John Smith's life
(1619) - African were used as slaves
the longest part of the journey formerly made by slave ships
english puritans who founded the plymouth colony in 1620
founded by the pilgrims in 1620 and the second colony of the US (Massachusetts)
the fundamental orders of connecticut
it has the features of a written constitution and is considered by some as the first written constitution in the western tradition
given charter and made pennsylvania
settled in Pennsylvania
Slaves were brough on the African Gold coast with new england rum and then traded in the west indies for sugar or molasses, which was brought back to New England to be manufactured into rum
Salem Witch trials
several accusations of witchcraft led to trials in salem massachuseets at which cotton mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake
keep the colonies obedient to Britain; an english policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
road to revolution
french and indian war
the war fought between british and france in 1754 because france exploited north american resources (beaver skins) and we crossed paths with the french
fort william henry massacre
It is best known as the site of notorious atrocities committed by Indians against the surrendered British and provincial troops following a successful French siege, an event which is the focus of James Fenimore Cooper's novel The Last of the Mohicans, first published in January 1826.
The Last of the Mohicans
The story takes place in 1757, during the French and Indian War (the Seven Years' War), when France and Great Britain battled for control of the North American colonies. During this war, the French called on allied Native American tribes to fight against the more numerous British colonists.
James Fenimore Cooper .
- (September 15, 1789 - September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century
Reps met daily at Albany, New York from June 19 to July 11 to discuss better relations with the Indian tribes and common defensive measures against the French,.
was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author and printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity.
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Stamp Act Congress
group of colonists who protested the Stamp Act, saying that Parliament couldn't tax without colonist' consent
group's refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies
- a clash between British soldiers and Boston colonists in 1770, in which 5 of the colonists were killed
- Killed in Boston Massacre, black laborer, only African-American person killed in Boston Massacre
The Gaspee Incident
A schooner was beached in Providence, RI, This upset Americans because it was one of the last of the customs racketeering ships. It was burned down by local inhabitants. It greatly angered the British and showed how militant the colonials were becoming.
a minute man who warned the colonists that the british are coming
author of common sense
written by thomas paine on why we should fight the revolutionary war
Declaration of Independence
- the document by which the Second Continental Congress announced and justified its decision to renounce the colonies' allegiance to the British Government
- English General who commanded the English forces at Bunker Hill. Howe did not relish the rigors of winter campaigning, and he found more agreeable the bedtime company of his mistress. At a time when it seemed obvious that he should join the forces in New York, he joined the main British army for an attack on Philadelphia.
- a British general that went south from Canada to meet Howe; captured Fort Ticonderoga
- Charles, 1st Marquis, 1738-1805, British general and statesman: surrendered to Washington at Yorktown, Virginia, October 19, 1781.
- office for the British but became the first President of the United States; He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.
- the Revolutionary War Army, authorized by the Continental Congress in 1775 and led by George Washington
2nd Continental Congress
- the continental congress conveyed in May 1775, approved the Declaration of Independence and serves as the only agency of national government during the Revolutionary War
Battle of Trenton
- On December 25, 1776, Washington led troops across the Delaware River in freezing weather to attack Trenton (held by Hessians)
Battle of Saratoga
- the turning point of the Revolutionary War when the colonist go onto the offensive side and attack (Oct. 1777); Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain
French Assistance to the Continental Army
- after the British were defeated in the Battle of Saratoga, the French became an ally to the Colonists.
- He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
Battle of Yorktown
- The last battle of the Revolutionary War, fought in 1781 near the seacoast of Virginia. There the British general Lord Cornwallis surrendered his army to General George Washington.
Treaty of Paris
(1783) - 1. Ended the Revolutionary War;
2. The colonist are independent;
3. Receive land in the west of Mississippi River and North (Canda) and South (Florida)
Articles of Confederation
- An agreement among the thirteen original states, approved in 1781, that provided a loose federal government before the present Constitution went into effect in 1789. There was no chief executive or judiciary, and the legislature of the Confederation had no authority to collect taxes. It failed because it lacked unity
- A system of government in which power is divided between a national (federal) government and various regional governments.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
- created 3-5 states that were gained from the Revolutionary War. 1: sent out territorial governors and judges, 2. 5000 voting residents and write a temporary state constitution and elect leaders. 3. 60,000 residents, can apply for statehood
- the convention in Philadelphia (1787) of representatives from each of the former Colonies, except Rhode Island, at which the Constitution of the United States was framed
- the building in Philadelphia where the declaration of independence was signed
- the branch of the United States government that has the power of legislating
- the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws
- the branch of the United States government responsible for the administration of justice
- an officer appointed or elected to preside over an organized body of persons. To become President of the US, you need to be 35 years old and was born in the United States and a resident for 14 years.
"natural born" citizen
- Status as a natural born Citizen of the United States is one of the requirements set by the United States Constitution for candidates to be eligible for election to the office of President or Vice President.
- The presidential electors who meet after the citizens vote for president and cast ballots for the president and vice president. Each state is granted the same number of electors as it has senators and representatives combined. These electors, rather than the public, actually elect the president and the vice president. The Founding Fathers assumed that electors would exercise discretion and not necessarily be bound by the popular vote, but the rise of political parties undermined this assumption
President Barack Obama
- the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned after his election to the presidency in November 2008.
- he 47th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President Barack Obama. He was a United States Senator from Delaware from January 3, 1973 until his resignation on January 15, 2009, following his election to the Vice Presidency.
- is in some jurisdictions the highest judicial body within that jurisdiction's court system, whose rulings are not subject to further review by another court; Supreme court justice is appointed by President and is appointed for life
- was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, a Founding Father of the United States, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789-95).
- is the 17th and current Chief Justice of the United States. He has served since 2005, having been nominated by President George W. Bush after the death of Chief Justice William Rehnquist.
- is the 55th and current Governor of New Jersey.
Checks and Balances
- prevent one branch from becoming supreme, protect the "opulent minority" from the majority,and to induce the branches to cooperate, governance systems that employ a separation of powers need a way to balance each of the branches.
The Virginia Plan
- (Madison) To have a two house legislature where people elect the lower house and the lower house elects the upperhouse and the representation is per population in congress
The New Jersey Plan
(William Patterson) to have a single house and each state gets one vote in congress
The Great Compromise
- a compromise by Roger Sherman between the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan where there are two house, people elect lower house, lower house elects upper house (senate) and the House is represented by population and the Senate is 2 from each state
- is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers.
- 100 senates in the U.S., two per state, 6 years term and have to be 30 years old
House of Representatives
- 435 representatives in the U.S., 2 years per term and needs to be 25 years old
- a compromise that allowed slaves to be counted 3/5th of a vote
- He was the principal author of the US Constitution, and is often called the "Father of the Constitution".
Bill of Rights
- protected the states rights and protect personal rights against the government; it was needed in order for states to join
- Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion, Petition and the right to have a peace assembly
- [Washington, Madison and Hamilton] supported the constitution and a strong central government
- [ Patrick Henry, Sam Adams, Henry Lee] did not support the constitution - states rights
- the group of department heads who serve as the President's chief advisors
- Secretary of Treasury; creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt
Secretary of Treasury
- the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also with some issues of national security and defense.
- favored strong central government (more related to Republicans today)
Bank of the United States
- The Bank was created to handle the financial needs and requirements of the central government of the newly formed United States, which had previously been thirteen individual states with their own banks, currencies, financial institutions, and policies.
- A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality
Democratic Republican Party
- American Political party founded in early 1770s by Thomas Jefferson and Hamilton
"Those people who labor the earth are the chosen people of God"
- Thomas Jefferson; only in manufacturing is there corruption
- is a historical site just outside Charlottesville, Virginia, United States. It was the estate of Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of State
- uniquely refers to the official responsible for foreign policy, the analogue of the foreign secretary or foreign minister of a country that has one or the other.
- is the 67th United States Secretary of State, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama.
- head of the Justice Department and advises the president on legal matter, considered "americas lawyer" (first to hold position- Edmund Randolph, current holder of position- Eric Holder); top law enforcement officer and lawyer for the government.
Washington's Farewell Address
- Stay away from Treaties with foreign nations and avoid political parties
- a statement by Thomas Jefferson about isolationists
- implied, does not have to say specifically
- must say specifically
- was an American statesman, diplomat and political theorist. A leading champion of independence in 1776, he was the second President of the United States (1797-1801); America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
Alien and Sedition Acts
-Federalists fear French plot to overthrow US government, Federalists suspicious of immigrants (many are active democratic republicans, and critical of Adams)
- raise residence requirement for citizenship from 5 to 14 years, permits deportation and jailed if undesirable
- fines, jail terms for saying anything false, damaging, scandalous about government
Virginia and Kentucky Resolution
- Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Burr v. Hamilton Duel
- Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel because Hamilton did not support Burr. Hamilton died because Burr shot him first.
Presidential Election of 1800
- Thomas Jefferson (Republican) v. Adams (Federalists). Jefferson and Burr received the same # of electoral votes so it went to the House of Representatives. Hamilton used his influence in the House (hated Jefferson, but hated Burr even more). Jefferson ended up winning.
- Napoleon (France) no longer wanted the Louisiana Territory and needed to fund his wars so he sold the Louisiana Territory to Thomas Jefferson for $15 million.
- Ruler of France and sold the Louisiana Territory to fund his wars
Lewis and Clark Expedition
- "The Core Expedition", Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the 7,000 mile territory and had to look for the Northwest Passage. They traveled from 1803 in search of the passage and wrote diaries and brought home plant and animal samples.
- a native American that helped Lewis and Clark with their expedition with translation to other Indian tribes