Waxy, protective layer that covers the stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants. Helps prevent water loss.
the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants
plant that absorbs water and other substances directly through its cell walls instead of through tube like structures
a plant organ that absorbs water and minerals from the soil
embryo of a living plant that is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by a food supply and a protective coat
stop the flow of a liquid
Plant with tube-like structures that move minerals, water, and other substances throughout the plant.
tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body in higher plants
the vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants
the vascular tissue through which water and nutrients move in some plants
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
long cells found in parts of the plant that are still growing
most abundant type of plant cell, sperical cells with thin, flexible walls, & a large central vacuole important for storage & food production.
an outer layer of cells designed to provide protection
plant cells with thick, rigid cell walls; provide support for the plant and are a major component of vascular tissue; includes fibers and stone cells
the tissue forming the outer layer of an organ or structure in plant or animal
stalk that connects a leaf to a plant stem
The process by which organic substances move through the phloem of a plant
have tough cell walls, cover the surface of stems and roots. The outer bark of a tree
produces new xylem and phloem cells in the stems and roots
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
substance produced in one part of an organism that affects another part of the same organism Ex auxins and gibberellins
The growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus
the part of the stamen that contains pollen
the organ that bears the ovules of a flower
modified leaves which are usually bright in color to attract pollinators.
the female ovule-bearing part of a flower composed of ovary and style and stigma
Leaflike parts that cover and protect the flower bud
The male, pollen-producing, reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.
period of time during which a plant embryo is alive but not growing
nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo within seeds of flowering plants
the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow
a plant's response to seasonal changes in length of night and day
a mass of green, branched, one-cell-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores.
an embryonic root of a plant.
anthrophyte fertilization process in which one sperm fertilizes the egg and the other sperm joins with the central cell; results in the fromation of a diploid zygote and a triploid endosperm
A flower that has all four basic floral organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.
A flower in which one or more of the four basic floral organs (sepals, petals, stamens, or carpels) are either absent or nonfunctional.
tough structure that protects a root as it forces its way through the soil
compound leaf of a fern or palm or cycad
A flowering plant that completes its entire life cycle in a single year or growing season.
A flowering plant that requires two years to complete its life cycle.
Trees and shrubs that shed their leaves at the end of the growing season
flowering plants that live for more than two years
a horizontal, underground stem that produces new leaves, shoots, and roots
the inner part of an ovary that contains an egg
a two-celled structure that contains a cell that will divide to form sperm
vascular tissue that produces xylem and phloem cells as a plant grows