I Voted X, Lynn Can Do More
1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 50, 1000
King Henry Danced Merrily Down Center Main
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so
contain these are NOT simple sentences
Kinetic Energy forumula
KE = 1/2 mv(2)
2kg mass travels at 3 meters/second. What is the objects KE?
KE = 1/2 (2kg)(3M/s)squared = 9Joules
non saturated double bond hydrocarbon
non saturated triple bond hydrocarbon
biological hierachy classification system
Did kinky phil come over for great sex
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
1s(2)2s(2) mass of 6, how many electrons, protons, neutrons (neutral atom)
protons and electrons are the same (exponents) = 4
for neutrons subtract protons from total mass = 6-4=2
far right, noble gases
do not react
left of noble gases
F, Br, Cl, I, At
combine to form salts
far left, metallic
lithium, sodium and potassium
low density, float on water, so reactive they will pull O2 from water and spontanously burn
which halogen reacts most readily with Na?
its in the same period!
generally ionic compounds are
between metals and nonmetals AND ionic bonded
simpliest form, no molecules exist
NaCl and Fluorite CaF2
ALWAYS solid at room temp
generally molecular compounds are
between nonmetals AND covalent bonds
neutral atoms bound together to form a neutral molecule
H2O and glucose C6H12O6
can be solid, liquid, or gas at room temp
in a chemical reaction a metal will become?
lose an electron
***which correctly describes ion Al -27
ele charge -3
elect charge +3
Electric charge +3
mass is 26.9, so the 27 is the mass
it is in the group 3A (normally 3 valence electrons)
**the negative sign shows it as losing an electron, therefore it is a cation, therefore positive
8(9) / 8(3) =
to find a WHOLE when given a "% of" and the percent
if 73% of X = 471.58
change % to decimal .73 and divide it into 471.58
***AFTER a 15% discount the TV cost $102.00
What was the original cost?
% * whole = part
change to decimal 15% = .15
SUBRACT .15 from 100 (since it is OFF not OF) = .85
.85 * whole = 102.00
now we can divide $102.00 by .85 = $120.00
neighborhood has 5% red mailboxes.
Student counts 60 red mailboxes
How many mailboxes in the neighborhood?
% * whole = part
.05 * X = 60
60/.05 = 1200 total mailboxes
IONS group IA
these metals LOSE 1 electron (to form an ionic bond)
Li = Li+ + e- (loses an electron so is a CATION/more + inside the nucleus than outside)
Li+ (Lithium ion)
FOR ELECTRON NUMBERS DO OPPOSITE of what you think.
H has 1 protons/electron, subtract 1 electrons
H+ has no electrons
IONS group lIA
these metals LOSE 2 electrons (to form an ionic bond)
Be = Be2+ + 2e- (loses electrons so is a CATION/more + inside the nucleus than outside)
Be2+ (Beryllium ion)
FOR ELECTRON NUMBERS TO OPPOSITE of what you think
Be has 4 protons/electrons, subtract 2 electrons
Be2+ has 2 electons
IONS group VlIA (Halogens)
these NONmetals GAIN an electron (when matched with metals, for form ionic bonds, become ANION/ more + charge outside the nucleus than inside)
F + e- = F-
F- (Floride ion)
FOR ELECTRON NUMBERS TO OPPOSITE of what you think
Al has 13 protons/electrons, subtract 3 electrons
Al3+ has 10 electrons
**Quick memorization monatomic ion charges
metal lA 1+
metal llA 2+
metal lllA 3+
metal lVA 2+
nonmetal VA 3-
nonmetal VlA 2-
nonmetal VLLA 1-
Subject and Object differences
If I say, "I love you," YOU are the object of my affection, and you is also the OBJECT of the sentence (because I am loving you, making ME THE SUBJECT and you the object).
I love you. You are the object of my affection and my sentence.
when to use WHO and WHOM
Like WHOM, the pronoun HIM ends with m.
When you're trying to decide whether to use who or whom, ask yourself if the answer to the question would be HE OR HIM. That's the trick: if you can answer the question being asked with him, then use whom, and it's easy to remember because they both end with m.
"Who (or whom) do you love?"
The answer would be "I love him." Him ends with an m, so you know to use whom.
"Who (or whom) stepped on Squiggly?"
the answer would be "He stepped on Squiggly." There's no m, so you know to use who.
affect vs effect
First, the mnemonic involves a very easy noun to help you remember: aardvark. Yes, if you can remember aardvark -- a very easy noun -- you'll always remember that affect with an a is a verb and effect with an e is a noun. Why? Because the first letters of "a very easy noun" are the same first letters as "affect verb effect noun!" That's a very easy noun. Affect (with an a) verb effect (with an e) noun.
"But why Aardvark?" you ask. Because there's also an example to help you remember. It's "The arrows affected Aardvark. The effect was eye-popping."
what does DRY MIX mean?
Dependent variable, Responding variable, Y axis
Manipulated variable, Independent variable, X axis
virus, bacteria consist of
virus - nucleic acid and hard cover
bacteria - prokaryotic, single cell wall, no definate nucleus
killer cell, looks for nonself
natural killer cells
cause cells to lyse
work like the flu vaccine
tricuspid - right atrium to right ventricle
pulmonary valve - to pulmanary viens
bicuspid - mitrol, from left atrium to left ventricle
saggital and transectional
saggital is verticle
transectional is horizontal
amino acids and protien
amino acids (small molecules) make up protiens (large molecules)
main excretetory organ
makes bile (bile is stored in the gall bladder)
usded to digest fat
quick digestion overview
*Mouth - saliva, amalyse, to digest carbs
*Stomach - HCl produced by parietal cells, activates pepsin (Chief cells), which digests protien, makes chyme
*duedenum - actually digests (bile is added)
*small intestine - absorption (and it goes to the liver for delivery)
*large intestine - reclaims water, bacteria break down and release vitamins, minerals absorbed
colen- stored feces
quick mitosis/meiosis overview
interphase S - replication (tetrads form with meiosis)
Prophase - condense and nucleus dissolves
Metaphase - line up
Anaphase - split and seperate
Telophase- pinch off and new nucleus
Cytokensis - actual seperation
For meiosis -
Diploids and homo. pairs
chromosones split (part chromosones switch around)
Haploids (sperm or egg cells)
Occurs in the testies and ovaries
forms 4 new sperm cells/forms 1 new egg cell and 3 polar bodies
mitosis and reproduction
binary fission (much like mitosis, organisms with no nucleus)
regineration (star fish or lizard tail)
what happens in interphase G1 and G2?
transcription with the help of polymerase)
what happens in interphase S?
quick overview of anaerobic respiration
breaks glucose into ethal alcohol and lactic acid, which makes ATP
Its fast energy but is made in small amounts
Occurs in the cells
quick overview of aerobic respiration
break down of glucose into carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Forms water and ATP. Occurs in mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. 10x more energy than anaerobic. Takes time and uses energy.
what is the simpliest example of a covalent bond
polar vs nonpolar covalent bonds
if the elements are the same, it will be nonpolar H2
if the elements are differnt they are polar HCl
produce heat, neutralization reactions, metabolism, condensation
will show heat as a - number
decomposition (56kJ + PCl5 = xxx + xxx), photosynthesis, evaporation, vaporization, sublimation
all have positive heat added (heat a + number)
absorbs energy (sun in photosynthesis)
construct larger molecules from smaller ones (bone growth)
it is POWERED by catabolism where they molecules are broken down and used for energy ATP
larger molecules broken down in metabolism and used as energy ATP
solid to liquid - heat is absorbed - endothermic
solid changes directly to gas
heat is absorbed - endothermic
liquid to solid
heat is released - exothermic
liquid to gas - heat absorbed - endothermic
gas to liquid/or gas directly to solid
release heat, exothermic
one in which electrons are transferred from one reactant to another
loss of one electron (becomes a cation/ +)
gains one electron (becomes an anion/ -)
produces a hydrogen Ion, H+ or H3O
HF, HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HNO2, H2CO3, H2SO4, H3PO4, H3BO3, HC2H3O2
H2O conj base is OH-
NH4+ conj base is NH3
HCl conj base is Cl-
H2SO4 conj base is HSO4-
HC2H3O2 conj base is C2H3O2-
produces hydroxide ion OH-
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, ca(OH)2, Ba(OH)2, NH3
OH- base conj acid H2O
NH2 base conj acid NH4+
S2- base conj acid HS-
NO3- base conj acid HNO3
H2O base conj acid H3)+
reaction of acid and base to produce a salt and H2O
Keep in mind:
OF translates into multiply
IS translates into equals
AFTER translates into subtraction
"What percent of the whole is the part?"
The enrollment at a college went up from 625 students to 710 students over a period of 1 year. What was the percent increase?
710-625 = 85
divide 85 by 625
85/625 = .136
On Monday, 3 students out of a class of 24 were absent from class. What percent of the students were absent from class?
3 divided by 24
3/24 = .125
The 18 students who received an A in mathematics class made up 30% of the students in the class. Find the total number of students in the class.
X * 30% = 18 so X = 18/.30
X = 60
word problems with ratios, proportions, and rates of change
units of an item/unitis of an item = units of an item/units of an item
same numerators and denominators
1250 students/50 sections = 1550 students/X sections
50 * 1550 = 77500
divide 77500 by 1250 to solve for X
X = 62
Student A reads 10 pages an hour
Student B reads 18 pages an hour
Each has a 288 page book to complete.
How much sooner will Student B complete the book compared to Student A?
*time for student A
10pgs/hr = 288 pgs/X hr
10 A = 288 1
A = 28.8 hrs
18 B = 288 1
B = 16hrs
28.8 - 16 = 12.8 hrs faster
saying to remember beginnings of prepositions...
the boy can sit "on" the box, "by" the box, "above" the box, "below" the box, "around" the box, or "near" the box. (also To and From)
Chem. Alvogadro's number
1 mole of X = 6.022 x 10(23)atoms
take mass (amu) AND for example Hydrogen
1 mole H = 1.008g H = 6.022x10(23)
determine molar mass, mass to mole, mole to mass
"On Old Olympic Towering Tops A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops"
The olfactory nerve is actually a collection of sensory nerve rootlets that extend down from the olfactory bulb and pass through the many openings of the cribriform plate in the ethmoid bone. These specialized sensory receptive parts of the olfactory nerve are then located in the olfactory mucosa of the upper parts of the nasal cavity. During breathing air molecules attach to the olfactory mucosa and stimulate the olfactory receptors of cranial nerve I and electrical activity is transduced into the olfactory bulb. Olfactory bulb cells then transmit electrical activity to other parts of the central nervous system via the olfactory tract.
AFFERENT- move sensory info toward the brain
The optic nerve has only a special sensory component
Special sensory conveys visual information from the retina (special afferent).
Visual information enters the eye in the form of photons of light which are converted to electrical signals in the retina. These signals are carried via the optic nerves, chiasm, and tract to the lateral geniculate nucleus of each thalamus and then to the visual centers of the brain for interpretation.
III Oculomotor ..
eyelid and eyeball movement
Consists of two components with distinct functions:
A. Somatic motor
(general somatic efferent) Supplies four of the six extraocular muscles of the eye and the levator palpebrae superioris muscle of the upper eyelid.
The somatic motor component of CN III plays a major role in controlling the muscles responsible for the precise movement of the eyes for visual tracking or fixation on an object.
B. Visceral motor
(general visceral efferent) Parasympathetic innervation of the constrictor pupillae and ciliary muscles.
The visceral motor component is involved in the pupillary light and accomodation reflexes.
important role in regulation of homeostasis:
Principle organ of regulation of
Extracellular fluid volume &
Major Site of Hormone Synthesis
Primarily those regulating systemic metabolic function
1,25-diOH vitamin D
Vasoactive prostanoids and kinins
when to use semi colon
between two independent clauses (each can be said as a sentence on their own) AND WITHOUT a cordinating conjuction FANBOYS (use a comma with CC)
when to use a colon
following is equivalent to what was preceding...
can replace with "that is" or "in other words"
VI Abducens turns eye laterally
VII Facial controls most facial expressions
secretion of tears & saliva
IX Glossopharyngeal taste
senses carotid blood pressure
X Vagus senses aortic blood pressure
slows heart rate
stimulates digestive organs
XI Spinal Accessory controls trapezius & sternocleidomastoid
controls swallowing movements
XII Hypoglossal controls tongue movements
innervates superior oblique
turns eye downward and laterally
The trochlear nerve is purely a motor nerve and is the only cranial nerve to exit the brain dorsally. The trochlear nerve supplies one muscle: the superior oblique. The cell bodies that originate the fourth cranial nerve are located in ventral part of the brainstem in the trochlear nucleus. The trochlear nucleus gives rise to nerves that cross (decussate) to the other side of the brainstem just prior to exiting the brainstem. Thus, each superior oblique muscle is supplied by nerve fibers from the trochlear nucleus of the opposite side. The trochlear nerve fibers curve forward and enter the dura mater at the angle between the free and attached border of the tentorium cerebelli. The nerve travels in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus and then enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure. The nerve travels medially and diagonally across the levator palpebrae superioris and superior rectus muscle to innervate the superior oblique muscle.
chewing, face & mouth touch & pain
The trochlear nerve has only a somatic motor component:
(general somatic efferent) Somatic motor innervates the superior oblique muscle of the contralateral orbit.
The superior oblique muscle is one of the six extraocular muscles responsible for the precise movement of the eye for visual tracking or fixation on an object.
rule for ie?
I before E except after C or when sounded like A in neighbor and weigh
mneomic for ei
rule for able/ible
use "IBLE" if the root is not a complete word
ends in ns, ss, has a soft C or G ending
ENFORCE-IBLE, Leg-ible, DEFENS-IBLE, Admiss-ible
-otherwise use ABLE-
rule for -ify
liquefy, putrefy, rarefy, stupefy
all other words are -ify
rule for -eed or -cede or -sede
only 3 end in -ceed
exceed, proceed, suceed
only 1 ends in -sede
ALL OTHERS -cede
rule for IN
in = not
if word begins with L chance to il ex illegal
if word begins with N or P, change to im, ex impossible or immortal or immature
silent E rule
if the suffix is a vowel, drop the E
CE or GE & suffix begins with A
noticeable and vengeance
rule for 1 syllable word
if it ends in a vowel and a consonant and is one syllable, double the consonant
rule for ends in Y
Y = I
beauty = beautiful
crazy = craziness
identify = identification
rule for plural and Y ending
vowel plus Y = add a S, boy = boys
consonant plus Y = y to i, berry = berries
plural with O ending
consonant plus O = add es, potato = potatoes
EXCEPTION with music
piano = pianos
solo = solos
soprano = sopranos
plural for crisis is?
Seven rules of capitalization
1. 1st word in sentence
2. specific person, place, or organization
3. Day, Month, Holiday
4. Nationality or region (Korean or Mideast or Northwest Territory)
5. rank or title when joined with a name
6. The first word and other important words in titles of works and art
7. Historical Eras or Events
Use the front end method to estimate the difference of 642-196=
Use the front in methold to estimate 67*5=
quick addtion tips
look for pairs of 10 to speed up addition
add left to right instead of right to left
Quick tip for percents, bike is 8k, buy today get 1600 off. what percent off?
do it in 10s
16/ 8 = 2 = 20%