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Pelvic and Pectoral Girdle

Appendages that are attached to our vertebral column so that we can physically interact with our environment.

Lower extremities

Attached by means of the pelvic girdle.

Upper extremities

Attached & supported through the pectoral girdle.

Pelvic girdle

Provides foundation for attachment of the legs to the vertebral column. Made up of paired coxal bones. Each coxal bone is made up of three individual bones known as the Ilium - ischium - pubis.

Bony pelvis

Formed by the coxal bones: sacrum and coccyx.

Illium, ischium, pubis

The 3 individual bones that make up each of the coxal bones.

Ilium

Large wing-like bone (similar to the scapula or shoulder blade of the upper body) that provides muscular support for abdominal structures (hip bone). One of the bones that make up the coxal.

Iliac crest

Important landmark as the superior point of attachment for the inguinal ligament which runs from the crest of the iliac to the joining of the two pubic bone.

Pubic symphysis

Point of joining the two pubic bones.

Sacrum

Consists of five fused vertebrae, with upper vertebrae articulating with the fifth lumbar.

Coccyx

Inferior most segment of the spinal column. Consists of 4 fused vertebrae which articulate at the inferior aspect of the sacrum.

Pectoral/Shoulder girdle

Also called the shoulder girdle includes the scapula and clavicle structures.

Clavicle/Collarbone

Attached to the superior sternum. Runs from that attachment laterally to join with the scapula (winglike structure) and provides anterior support for the shoulder by its articulation with the scapula.

Bony thorax

Vertebrae and vertebral column.
Ribs and their attachments.

Pectoral girdle

Scapula and clavicle.

Pelvic girdle

Coxal Bones (hip bones) - Ilium-ischium-pubis
Sacrum
Coccyx

Process

Prominences/protuberance - bulge on surface of structure.

Foramen

Opening.

Corpus

Body.

Tubercle

Small rounded prominence on bone.

Facets

Small surfaces.

Symphysis

Growing together.

Xiphoid process/insoform process, corpus, manubrium.

The three components of the sternum.

Lungs

Gas exchange units . Spongy elastic connective tissue with a rich vascular (arterial and venous networks)supply and air sacs.

Visceral thorax

Communication from the lungs with the external environment is via this respiratory passageway.

Left lung

Two lobes (because space is taken up by heart & other structures.)

Right lung.

Three lobes.

Mediastinum

Space that occupied the heart, trachea, major blood vessels, nerves, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and conducting portion of the gastrointestinal tract (esophagus).

Trachea

Flexible tube composed of hyaline cartilage rings that open posteriorly.

Esophagus

Posterior to the trachea. Long collapsed tube - food tube - maintains this collapsed condition until food bolus passes through then the bolus is propelled by gravity and peristaltic contractions into the stomach.

Mainstem bronchi tube

Primary bronchi - serves the right and left lung.

Secondary bronchi tube

Lobar bronchi - supply the lobes of the lungs.

Segmental bronchi tube

Tertiary bronchi - supply segments of the lobes.

Bronchioles (little bronchis)

Exact point at which gas exchange takes place.

Alveoli

Functional units of the lung where the gas exchange takes place. Subdivisions of the Bronchial tree end here.

Alveoli 5

Highly vascularized and provide the mechanism by which oxygen enters the blood stream and carbon dioxide is removed.

Plurae-wrapping

Assists in the movement of air through the system. It is lining that makes the movement of lungs smoother (without pain). Line the inner thoracic wall and the lungs.

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