- there are multiple ways to solve a problem
- Pellagra: Dr. Goldberger researched and found a cure for the disease. conducted it on prisoners that were in for murder.
- used the scientific method for this. came up with a good hypoth.
how medicines are tested in a clinical trial?
- there is always a control that is used as a based line
- conductors dont know which patient is a control or is taking something
- placebo effect
what must be given up to acquire something else
Telling the difference between 2 points: the closer the toothpicks the harder it is to tell if they are 2 or just 1 touching
Proteins found on cell surface that interact with environmental stimuli and imitates nerve signals
The differences between every person. How people react differently to something.
Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques
data you collect using your senses - little, big, heavy, many...
Trade offs in choosing pain relieving medicine
- there are risk in taking any medicine, human variation with each medicine
- herbal tea is not approved by the FDA b/c its tea, not a cure
The types of systems- what they do
The Importance of the Liver
What role it plays in keeping are bodies working.
the greater the amount of Mechanical breakdown the great the effect of chemical breakdown for the reason of chemical breakdown increases or decreases the amount of surface area it has to eat away at. if its a small area, the effectiveness is greater
glands of the mouth that produce saliva, a digestive secretion
a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
organ that makes bile to break down fats; also filters poisons and drugs out of the blood
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
muscular sac that churns food and secretes hydrochloric acid to start breaking down proteins
organ that stores bile
digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place
the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
The last part of the digestive tract, through which stools are eliminated
opening of the rectum to the outside of the body
food is physically broken down into smaller pieces
the breaking up of larger molecules into smaller ones through the action of chemicals(occurs at a faster or slower rate depending on surface area)
Central Nervous System
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
autonomic nervous system
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.(Involuntary)
Sympathetic Nervous system
fight or flight - involuntary actions - heart rate speeds up.
Somatic Nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
Para Sympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
the system for taking in oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide - consists of the nose, mouth, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and the alveolus
membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi
two short branches located at the lower end of the trachea that carry air into the lungs.
small tubes that branch off the bronchi that contain clusters of alveoli at each end.
thin-walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
The human body system that contians the heart, blood, and all of the blood vessels. It delivers all the nutrients to the cells
the system that removes waste from your body and controls water balance(solid, liquid, and gas)
Musculo Skeletal system
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
the organ system that forms a protective covering on the outside of the body
the cells, tissues, and organs that protect the body from disease. the immune system is composed of the white blood cells, bone marrow, thymus gland, spleen and other parts
organs and tissues involved in the production and maturation of gametes and in their union and subsequent development as offspring