Appendicular Skeleton - Lesson 2 (No Pictures)

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Appendicular skeleton

consisting of bones of the pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, and lower limbs

Clavicle

slender curved bone (collarbone) which connects the shoulder (scapula) to the axial skeleton (sternum)

Acromial End

most lateral part of the clavicle which forms a joint with scapula

Sternal End

most medial part of the clavicle which forms a joint with the sternum

Conoid Tubercle

prominence on inferior surface of the lateral end of clavicle

Scapula

triangular shaped shoulder blade

Spine (of the Scapula)

posterior ridge of scapula

Acromion Process

scapular process extending laterally from the spine of the scapula, which articulates with the clavicle

Coracoid process

process on the anterior, superior side of the scapula near the glenoid cavity, extending laterally

Glenoid Cavity

lateral aspect of scapula which serves as a point of articulation with the humerus

Supraglenoid Tubercle

prominence superior to the glenoid cavity

Infraglenoid Tubercle

prominence inferior to the glenoid cavity

Supraspinous Fossa

depression on the posterior surface of the scapula superior to the spine

Infraspinous Fossa

depression on the posterior surface of the scapula inferior to the spine

Subscapular Fossa

depression on the anterior surface of the scapula

Suprascapular Notch

notch adjacent to the coracoids process through which a nerve passes

Superior Border (of the Scapula)

top ridge

Superior Angel (of the Scapula)

junction of the superior and medial borders

Medial Border (of the Scapula)

vertebral side

Inferior angle (of the Scapula)

junction of the medial and lateral borders

Lateral Border (of the Scapula)

axillary side

Humerus

the long bone of the upper arm

Head (of the Humerus)

proximal rounded portion which articulates with the scapula

Anatomical Neck (of the Humerus)

portion of the humerus immediately inferior to the head

Greater Tubercle

a process lateral to the humeral head and inferior to the anatomical neck

Lesser Tubercle

process anterior to the greater tubercle of the humerus

Intertubercular Groove

groove between the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus

Surgical Neck

tapering region of the humeral shaft inferior to the anatomical neck

Deltoid tuberosity

elevation on lateral side of the humeral shaft for muscle attachment

Medial and Lateral Supracondylar Ridges

smooth prominences located above the medial and lateral condyles for muscle attachment

Capitulum

Lateral condyle on the distal end of the humerus which articulates with the head of radius

Trochlea

medial condyle on the distal end of the humerus which articulates with the trochlear notch

Lateral Epicondyle

located on the distal end of the humerus superior to the capitulum

Medial Epicondyle

located on the distal end of the humerus superior to the trochlea

Coronoid Fossa

located on the anterior side of the distal end of the humerus superior to the trochlea and articulates with the coronoid process of the ulna

Olecranon Fossa

located on the posterior side of the distal end of the humerus superior to the trochlea and articulates with the olecranon process of the ulna

Ulna

the medial bone of the forearm

Trochlear Notch

half-moon shaped notch which forms a hinge joint with the trochlea of the humerus

Coronoid Process

located on the proximal end of the ulna, smaller than and distal to the olecranon process

Olecranon Process

located on the proximal end of the ulna, larger than and proximal to the coronoid process

Radial Notch

depression on the proximal end of the ulna; radial head articulates here

Supinator Crest

short vertical ridge inferior to the radial notch

Interosseous Crest

ridge along the lateral portion of the ulnar shaft that points towards the radius

Head (of the Ulna)

distal region of the ulna

Styloid Process

medial projection at the distal end of the ulna

Radius

lateral bone of the forearm

Head (of the Radius)

knob on the proximal end of radius

Neck (of the Radius)

region between head and tuberosity

Radial Tuberosity

a roughened elevation on the radial shaft, for attachment of biceps

Interosseous Crest

ridge along the medial portion of the shaft that points towards ulna

Ulnar Notch

depression on the medial distal end of the radius, articulates with the head of the ulna

Styloid Process

lateral projection at the distal end of the radius

Carpals

consisting of eight wrist bones arranged into two rows of four; Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitates, hamate

Metacarpals

five bones forming palm of hand

Phalanges

four digits each consisting of proximal, middle, and distal bone, the thumb having only two; total=14; each phalanx has a proximal base and a distal head

Ox Coxa

the hip bone, composed of the ilium, ischium, and pubis

Pubic Symphysis

fibrocartilage disc which joins the two ossa coxae anteriorly

Acetabulum

lateral depression of the os coxa which articulates with the femoral head

Obturator Foramen

large opening between ischium and pubis

Ilium

superior flared portion of the os coxa

Iliac Crest

ridge on the superior border of the ilium

Anterior Superior Iliac Spine

anterior termination of the iliac crest

Posterior Superior Iliac Spine

iliac crest terminates into a sharp posterior spine

Posterior Inferior Iliac Spine

process inferior to posterior superior iliac spine

Greater Sciatic Notch

indentation in ilium for passage of the sciatic nerve

Auricular Surface

region on the ilium for articulation with the sacrum

Ischium

posterior and inferior portion of the os coxa

Ramus

flattened part of ischium

Ischial Spine

process located posteriorly to the acetabulum

Lesser Sciatic Notch

notch immediately inferior to the ischial spine

Ischial Tuberosity

inferior roughened surface of the ischium for ligament and muscle attachment and sitting upon

Pubis

most anterior portion of the os coxa

Superior Ramus

flattened superior border of the obturator foramen

Inferior Ramus

flattened medial border of the obturator foramen

Pubic Tubercle

anterior prominence superior to the symphysis pubis, lateral end of pubic crest

Pubic Crest

margin of bone between the pubic tubercles of adjacent pubis bones

Femur

bone of the upper leg

Head (of the Femur)

superior rounded portion that forms a ball-and-socket joint with the acetabulum

Fovea Capitis

central pit on the femoral head for a ligamentous attachment to the acetabulum

Neck (of the Femur)

narrowed part which connects the head to the shaft at a lateral angle

Shaft (of the Femur)

the diaphysis or femoral body

Greater Trochanter

large prominence lateral to the femoral head

Lesser Trochanter

smaller prominence inferior to the head on the medial side of the femur

Intertrochanteric Crest

region formed posteriorly between the greater and lesser trochanters

Intertrochanteric Line

region formed anteriorly between the greater and lesser trochanters

Gluteal Tuberosity

roughened surface adjacent to prolonged lateral ridge of superior linea aspera

Linea Aspera

rough crest on the posterior side of the femur extending vertically along the shaft

Medial Condyle

medial knob on the distal end of the femur which forms a hinge joint with the tibia

Lateral Condyle

lateral knob on the distal end of the femur which forms a hinge joint with the tibia

Medial Epicondyle

medial elevation on the distal end of the femur superior and medial to the condyle

Lateral Epicondyle

lateral elevation on the distal end of the femur superior and lateral to the condyle

Intercondylar Notch

posterior notch located between the condyles

Patellar Surface

anterior depression between the femoral condyles

Patella

sesmoid bone referred to as the knee cap

Apex (of the Patella)

pointed inferior end

Base (of the Patella)

superior flat portion of patella

Articular Facets

depressions which articulate with the femoral condyles

Tibia

the anteriomedial bone of the lower leg

Medial Condyle

medial depression on the proximal end of the tibia which articulates with the femur

Lateral Condyle

lateral depression on the proximal end of the tibia which articulates with the femur

Intercondylar Eminence

process between the two condyles

Tibial Tuberosity

rough surface on the anterior surface of the tibia

Anterior Crest

long vertical ridge on the anterior surface of the tibia

Medial Malleolus

distal medial process forming the ankle bulge

Fibular Notch

lateral notch on the distal end tibia where tibia and fibula articulate

Fibula

long thin bone lateral and slightly posterior the tibia

Head (of the Fibula)

knob at the proximal end of the fibula

Lateral Malleolus

lateral process on the distal end of the fibula

Tarsals

posterior food comprised of seven bones; talus, calcaneus (and tuberosity of calcaneus), navicular, cuboid, lateral cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, medial cuneiform

Metatarsals

middle portion of the food comprised of five bones

Phalanges

four digits each consisting of proximal, middle, and distal bone, the halloo having only two; total=14; each phalanx has a proximal base and a distal head

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