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Physical Properties

color, odor, melting point, conductivity, solublity, hardness, boiling point, density, malleability => DON'T CHANGE the sample

Chemical Properties

flammability, reactivity => DO CHANGE the sample

Solids

have definity shape and volume, ordered, low energy (particles aren't moving around much)

liquids

have definite volume but not shape, less ordered, more energy, if something is aqueous (aq) it is dissolved in water

gases

no definite shape or volume, total disorder, highest energy (lots of particle movement)

Elements

can't be separated, made of 1 kind of atom (like O2)

Compounds

can be separated chemically, made of 2+ kinds of atoms (like H20)

Mixtures

can be separated PHYSICALLY by evaporating, sifting, magnetism, filtering, etc.

Nucleus of an atom

made of protons (+) and neutrons (ø), most of atom's mass is here, # of protons determines what each element is

Cation

a POSTIVE ion, has lost electrons, smaller radius

Anion

a NEGATIVE ion, has gained electrons, larger radius

isotopes

less common forms of an element, have SAME # of protons but DIFFERENT # of neutrons, have a different mass

Electronegativity

ATTRACTION for electrons

ionization

energy required to PULL AN ELECTRON AWAY from an atom

Metals

LOW electronegativity and ionization, good conductors, shiny and malleable

transition metals

produce colors when reacted

nonmetals

HIGH electronegativity and ionization energy, poor conductors, brittle and dull

matalloids

B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te => on "steps" of periodic table

Hydrogen bonds

only with FON => florine, oxygen, nitrogen

Polar Bonds

DIFFERENT ELEMENTS

Nonpolar Bonds

SAME ELEMENTS

Coordinate Covalent Bond

one atom donates BOTH electrons in a bond (ex. CO)

High melting/boiling point

strong attractive forces between atoms/molecules

Low melting/boiling point

weak attractive forces between atoms/molecules

Covalent Bond

between two nonmetals, electrons are shared

Ionic Bond

between metal and nonmetal, nonmetal "steals" electrons from the metal

Bonded Atoms have

less potential energy than the elements alone

Metallic Bonds

the nucleus is surrounded by a "sea" of electrons

diatomic molecules

a molecule that MUST contain two identical atoms when alone: O₂H₂N₂F₂Cl₂Br₂I₂

Rutherford

gold foil experiment: atoms are mostly empty space, positive in the middle, negative aroung the outside

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