organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
an organism that depends on complex organic substances for nutrition
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds; also called an autotroph
organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supply; also called a heterotroph
organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter
single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes
predominantly photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms containing a blue pigment in addition to chlorophyll
primitive chlorophyll-containing mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms lacking true stems and roots and leaves
Containing no plant tissue through which water and food move.
seedless vascular plant
A plant that has tissues that conduct water and other materials but does not reproduce by forming seeds,e.g.,a fern,club,moss,or horsetail.
plant that reproduces by means of seeds not spores
plants of the class Gymnospermae having seeds not enclosed in an ovary
flowering plant; bears its seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed
single celled organisms with the ability to move independently
a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
Kingdom composed of heterotrophs; many obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter
Organisms can be classified as autotrophs or heterotrophs, depending on how they acquire carbon. why is carbon source so important?
Carbon is needed for photosynthesis to be converted into organic matter. organisms must obtain matter and energy from the environment to maintain organization and reproduce.
What types of producers are found in marine ecosystems?
Bacteria (prokaryotic - simple cells without a nucleus) and algae (eukaryotic - have cells with a nucleus)
What is the main trade-off faced by land plants, compared to their algal ancestors?
A set of structural and reproductive terrestrial adaptations. algae only needs water to get CO2 and minerals. plants get light & CO2 from air but water and mineral nutrients from soil, two very different places. The complex bodies of plants are specialized to take advantage of these two environments by having both aerial leaf-bearing organs (shoots) and subterranean organs (roots).
What is the function of a seed? How does a fruit differ from a seed?
seed- encased in tough, desiccation resistant coats so seed plants are able to reproduce in very arid habitats. walled structures that protect embryos. fruit helps with seed dispersal
What types of organisms function as decomposers?
fungi and heterotrophic bacteria
a mature fertilized plant ovule consisting of an embryo and its food source and having a protective coat or testa