# Ch.8,- Solids, Liquids, and Gases

## 22 terms

### states of matter

solid, liquid, gas, and plasma; state of a sample of matter depends on the temperature

### kinetic theory of matter

the idea that tiny particles in constant motion make up all matter; also explains the changes of state

### crystals

In most solids, the arrangements of particles in repeating geometric patterns

### amorphous solid

"having no form"; appear to be solids, but are not made of crystals

### plasma

a gaslike mixture of positively and negatively charged particles; matter heated at high temperatures begin to collide violently. Then particles break up into the smaller particles they are made of- electrically charged particles. Ex- the sun, lights

### thermal expansion

A characteristic of almost all matter that causes it to expand when heated and contract when cooled

### polluted water

Water that contains high levels of unwanted substances that may be harmful to living things.

### thermal pollution

when electrical generating plants or industries release large amounts of heated water into rivers; excess heat in water

### evaporation

the process where a liquid changes to a gas gradually at temperatures below the boiling point.

### condensation

the process where a gas changes to a liquid Ex- a soft drink sweating

### heat of fusion

the amount of energy needed to change a solid to a liquid state; explained by the kinetic theory of matter

### heat of vaporization

the amount of energy needed to change a liquid to a gas

### pressure

the amount of force exerted per unit of area

P=F/A - Pressure= Force divided by Area

### pascal (Pa)

SI unit of pressure

### Boyle's Law

if you decrease the volume of a container of gas, the pressure of the gas will increase, provided the temperature doesn't change

### Charles's Law

the volume of a gas increases with the increasing temperature, provided the pressure doesn't change

### buoyant force- buoyancy

the force is the ability of a fluid-liquid or gas- to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it. (float)

### Archimedes' Principle

the buoyant force of an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object Ex- steel boat vs. block of wood

### Pascal's Principle

pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted unchanged throughout the fluid Ex- toothpaste

### Bernoulli's Principle

as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases Ex- Coca Cola bottles

### Venturi Effect

Fluids flow faster through narrow spaces. As a result the speed increase, the pressure of the fluid drops. This reduction in pressure in these spaces is a special case of Bernoulli's principle Ex- baseball

### sublimation

when a solid goes to a gas