AP Psych Final

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1. According to Wilhelm Wundt, the focus of psychology was on the scientific study of

consciousness

WWTF are you conscious

2. The person who established America's first psychological research laboratory and who launched America's first psychology journal was

G. Stanley Hall

3. The first president of the American Psychological Association (APA) was

G. Stanley Hall

4. Introspection was most likely to be used by

structuralists

5. The first woman to serve as President of the American Psychological Association was

Mary Whilton Calkins

6. The notion that unconscious motivations can influence our overt behavior is most consistent with the views of

Freud

7. Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems, which he called

psychoanalysis

8. The psychologist who proposed that the study of consciousness should be replaced by the study of behavior was

John B. Watson

9. Alison believes that individuals learn to be either aggressive or non-aggressive as a result of the experiences they have. Alison's views are most consistent with the

Nature vs. Nurture, Nurture - learn by experience

10. The psychologist who took the position that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes was

B.F Skinner

11. The theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, is

humanism

12. The theoretical viewpoint that is most closely associated with Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow is

humanists

13. The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems is called

applied psychology

14. Which of the following groups is most likely to have been used as subjects for psychological research?

school children?

15. Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study are called

variable

16. A hypothesis is

tentative statement about relationship between 2 or more things

17. In an experiment, the variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher is called the

independent variable

18. The purpose of the control group is to

see what has changed

19. In experiments, placing subjects in experimental groups such that each subject has an equal probability of ending up in any experimental group is referred to as

random sampling

21. Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that

all brought in the scope of phenomena that psychologists are able to study

22. The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores, such that half the scores fall below that score and half the scores fall above it, is the

median

23. The standard deviation is a measure of

amount of variability in a set of data

24. Placebos are used in research to control for

effects of a treacherous extraneous variable, participants expectation

25. One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use

double blind - procedure will control for experiment bias neither subject nor experimenter know experiment from control

26. ____ receive information from other neurons; ____ transmit information to other neurons.

Dendrites receive information and axons transmit information to other neurons

27. Faster neural impulses occur in

neurons covered in myelin

28. Which of the following is the correct sequence of structures through which information flows in a neuron?

dendrites - soma - axon - presynaptic terminals

29. The tiny electrical charge that exists when a neuron is not receiving and/or sending information is called

resting potential - stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive

30. When sodium channels open, allowing sodium ions to flow into a neuron, it causes

action potential INCREASES - brief shift in neurons electrical charge that travels along axon when channels open allowing sodium ions to flow into neuron

31. The minimum length of time between action potentials is determined by

absolute refractory period- minimum length of time between action potentials

32. If action potentials follow the all-or-none principle how is it possible for us to distinguish between different levels of stimulus intensity?

neurons can convey information about strength of stimulus by varying rate of which they fire action potentials

33. If IPSP's did not exist

decreases likelihood neuron will fire action potentials.

34. Reabsorption of neurotransmitters into the presynaptic neuron is referred to as

reuptake - reabsorption of neurotransmitters

35. An agonist

chemical that mimics action of a neurotransmitter

36. An antagonist

chemical that opposes/blocks action of a neurotransmitter

37. Abnormalities at norepinephrine and serotonin synapses appear to play a role in which of the following?

depression and OCD

38. ____ nerves receive information, while ____ nerves carry out instructions.

afferent nerves receive info, efferent nerves carry out instructions

39. That part of the nervous system that controls digestion and flow of blood is the

autonomic nervous system

40. Erin suffered a brain injury and her neurologist has told her that there is damage to her reticular formation. In this instance, Erin is most likely to experience

reticular formation contributes to modulation of muscle reflexes, breathing and pain

41. The brain structure that appears to play a vital role in the regulation of temperature regulation, hunger, thirst, and sexual motivation is the

hypothalamus HUNGRY HYPER HIYPO

42. Which of the following brain structures is most closely associated with the regulation of emotion?

cerebrum/limbic system

43. The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the

corpus callosom

44. In which of the lobes of the cerebrum is the somatosensory cortex located?

parietal lobe

45. The most recent research investigating the brain's plasticity suggests that

anatomical structure and functional organization of brain is more malleable than assumed brains plasticity declines with age

46. If you have difficulty understanding the meaning of someone's speech, you may suspect damage to

primary auditory cortex

47. In both split-brain people and neurologically intact people, the left hemisphere specializes in

left hemisphere connects and communicates with right hand, arm, eyebrow, etc. specializes in language - verbal processing, language speech reading and writing

48. The system of glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream is known as the

endocrine system

49. According to psychologists, the minimum stimulus intensity of any sensory input that an organism can detect is

an absolute threshold for a specific type of sensory input is the minimum stimulus intensity an organism can detect

50. According to psychologists, the smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detect is

just noticeable difference (JND) smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detect

51. According to ____, the ability to detect a stimulus depends not only on the intensity of the stimulus but also on other variables such as the level of noise in the system and your expectations.

signal detection theory

52. The registration of sensory input without conscious awareness refers to

subliminal perception - registration of sensory input without conscious awareness

53. Sensory adaptation refers to

sensory adaptation - gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation

54. Overall, it appears that we perceive

we perceive changing stimuli better than constant ones

55. The wavelength of light mainly affects our perception of

color

56. If the human eye was not responsive to differences in the amplitude of light waves, we would not be able to perceive differences in

brightness

58. Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on ____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on____

cones - daylight vision/color rods - night time/ peripheral

59. The primary visual cortex is located in the

occipital lobe

60. Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific features of complex stimuli are called

feature detectors - neurons that respond selectively to specific features of more complex stimuli

61. If you look at a sheet of notebook paper set on a table, the distal stimulus is the ____, and the proximal stimulus is the ____.

paper / image projected on a retina.

62. The binocular depth cue that relies on the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas, so that the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object is known as

retinal disparity - objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on right and left retinas, so each eye sees slightly different view of object.

63. Interposition refers to

when an object comes between you and another object it must be closer to you

64. Which of the following principles does the Ponzo illusion use to achieve its effect?

linear perspective

65. The Ames room, in which people are seen to get small or enlarge as they move about, demonstrates that our perception of the world depends strongly on

our perception of the world depends strongly on the assumptions we make about it

66. The structure of the ear that transduces sound vibrations into nerve impulses is the

COCHLEA. hair cells convert physical stimulation into neural impulses that are sent to brain.

67. The correct order in which a sound stimulates the structures in the ear is

eardrum. ossicles. oval window. cochlea.

68. Which of the following best describes how we hear according to place theory?

perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different portions, or places, along basilar membrane

69. The two major cues we use to localize sound sources in space are

intensity (loudness) and timing of sounds arriving at each ear are the two cues that contribute to auditory localization

70. Food generally tastes bland when you have a severe head cold because

sense of smell is impaired and odor contributes to flavor

71. The awareness of self, your thoughts, internal sensations and external stimuli is defined as

consciousness

72. An electroencephalograph is a device that measures

electroencephalograph (EEG) monitors electrical activity of brain over time by means of recording electrodes attatched to surface of scalp

73. The four basic EEG patterns are

delta, beta, alpha and theta

74. The hormone that appears to play a key role in adjusting our biological clocks is

melatonin

75. Sleep spindles, which appear against a background of mixed, mostly lower frequency EEG activity, are characteristic of

stage 2 sleep

76. Which of the following is NOT associated with REM sleep?

heightened muscle tension NOT in rem

77. The most common known sleep disorder is

insomnia

78. Sleep apnea is characterized by

frequent, reflexive gasping for air

79. The role-playing theory of hypnosis offered by Barber and Spanos suggests that the hypnotized subject

think as they think they are supposed to

81. A drug that depresses central nervous system activity is referred to as

sedatives

82. The most widely used recreational drug in the United States is

alcohol

83. A progressive decrease in one's response to a drug with repeated and prolonged use is called

tolerance

84. John needs to continue to take doses of morphine to avoid withdrawal illness symptoms. John is demonstrating

physical dependence

85. The three basic processes in memory are

encoding, storage, retrival

86. Early-selection theories of attention propose that

info sensored during sensory input

87. Which of the following was NOT a level of processing associated with verbal information as suggested by Craik and Lockhart (1972)?

they were structural, phonemic, and semantic

88. Norm is studying for his law exam. While he is studying, he is trying to think of as many examples as he can to illustrate key ideas. In this case, Norm is using

dual coding theory

89. The Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model proposes that memory has

shiffrin memory model - incoming information passes through z temporary storage. buffers. sensory and STM then n- LTM and sensory stores

90. Which of the following researchers conducted a classic experiment that demonstrated the brief duration of information in sensory memory?

Sperling

91. You are absorbed in reading your psychology text when the phone rings. After talking on the phone, you can't remember the last thing you read. This information was lost from ____ memory, because the phone conversation distracted you from ____ the information.

short term / rehearsal

92. Which of the following researchers is known for identifying the capacity of short-term memory as "seven plus or minus two" items?

Geroge Miller

93. Penfield's studies suggest that long-lost memories can be elicited through electrical stimulation of the brain. This suggests the possibility that forgetting may be a matter of

LTM info stores permanently, remember is an issue of retrivial

94. Unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events are called

Flashbulb memories

95. The process of deciding on whether a memory is based on an external source or an internal source is referred to as

reality monitoring

96. The first person to conduct scientific studies of forgetting was

Herman Ebbinghaus

97. Pseudoforgetting is viewed as a function of

lack of attention

98. You have an exam at 8 a.m. and it is now 8 p.m. the night before. You have studied well. The best thing to do now is

sleep all night

99. The concept of motivated forgetting is based largely on the work of which of the following early psychologists?

Sigmund Freud

100. Retrograde amnesia is a type of organic amnesia in which

involves loss of memory that occured prior to amnesia

101. Damage to which of the following is most likely to cause deficits in long-term memory?

hippocampus

102. All of the following theorists EXCEPT ____ encouraged the study of cognitive activity which helped lead to the cognitive revolution in the 1950s.

skinner

103. The three essential characteristics of language are that it must be

symbolic, generative, limited number of symbols, and structured

104. The word "unchangeable" consists of

phoneme - morpheme - word - phrase - sentence. EX: unchangeable 3 morphemes

105. If you were to compare adult speech with the speech of infants under 4 months of age you should expect to find that

children use more overextension and underextensions telegraphic speech, MLU and over-regularizations than adults THEY USE MORE MORPHENES

106. Valerie is 18 months old. Her productive vocabulary probably consists of

at 10 months old speech consists of mainly telegraphic speech

fast mapping

107. Fast mapping is

process by which children map a word on to an underlying concept after only one exposure

108. Overextension occurs when

apple meaning fruit say specific thing meaning broad thing

109. Underextension would be evident if a three-year-old child

incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than tis meant to-says doll referring to one specific toy.

110. Metalinguistic awareness refers to

ability to reflect on use of language

111. Evidence from research studies investigating bilingualism suggest that

bilangualism hampers language development and has a negative impact on youngsters educational process. Little empirical support that bilingualism has a serious negative effect

112. Pinker and Bloom (1992) suggest that human language may be a result of evolutionary processes because language allows humans to

acquire information about the worlds second hand

113. According to Skinner, children learn a language

through imitation and reinforcement

114. Noam Chomsky contended that

unreasonable to expect children learn language through imitation children learn rules of language or that inborn propensity to develop language

115. You are having a conversation with your psychology professor and he proposes that your language determines the nature of your thought. Which theorist would agree with his assertions?

Benjamin Lee Whorf - languistic relativity, the hypothesis that ones language determines your thought

116. Functional fixedness refers to

tendency to assume a given item is only useful for task it was designed

117. A methodical, step by step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem is

algorithym

118. A mental "rule of thumb" for problem solving is referred to as

heuristic

119. The concept of field dependence-independence highlights the importance of ____ in determining problem-solving skills.

cultural factors

120. The availability heuristic implies that people will ____ the frequency of events that are easy to remember and ____ the frequency of events that are hard to remember.

believe, avoid

121. The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to

judge objects and events in terms of how closely they math the prototype of that object or event

122. ____ tests measure general mental ability and ____ tests measure various aspects of people including motives, interests, values and attitudes.

intelligence,personality

123. The test you are currently taking is an example of what kind of test?

achievement! OMG.

124. The fact that a test is given with uniform procedures in administration and scoring means that the test has been

standardized

125. The fact that two people taking the same test in two different places will receive the same instructions, the same questions, and the same time limits means that the test has been

standardization all subjects get same instructions, questions and time

126. If a test yields nearly identical scores when it is retaken after a 2-month interval, the test is said to be

reliability measurement consistency of a test

127. Which of the following represents the strongest test-retest reliability for a test?

correlation coefficient strongest test retest reliability

128. A valid test is one that

measures what its designed to measure

129. Which theorist set out to improve on the measurement of intelligence in adults with an intelligence test with two major innovations; the first was that the score was less dependent on a subject's verbal ability and the second was the use of a deviation intelligence quotient?

Wechsler improve measurement of intelligence in adults

130. Currently, the test that is most commonly used to assess adult intelligence is the

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) most common measure of intelligence in adults

131. Who was originally responsible for developing IQ tests for all ages with both verbal and performance items and with subtest scores?

Weshler

132. The correlation between IQ scores and performance within a particular occupation is best described as

higher IQ = high status job

133. The vast majority of retarded people are classified as

majority of retarted peole are classified as mildly retarted.

134. The environmental hypothesis suggests that mental retardation is

retardation is an affect of enviornment factors

135. Terman's longitudinal study of gifted individuals has shown that gifted children

Termans study showed that gifted children exhibit better than average physical health, emotional stability, social satisfaction, height weight strength and social maturity

136. Which of the following statements regarding giftedness and achievement in life is most accurate?

the fast majority of gifted children dont grow up live very successfully

137. The consensus among most researchers is that the heritability of intelligence is

heritability of intelligence is 50%

138. The Flynn effect is the finding that

environmental factors level of performance required to earn a score of 100, jumped upward every time tests were reformed

139. According to the reaction range model, children

in good environments have high IQs genetically determined limits on IQ or other traits

140. According to Robert Sternberg, intelligence can be divided into three major parts. These three

analytical creative and practical intelligence

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