plasma membrane lipid bilayer

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plasma membrane

encloses the cell, defines the cell boundaries, maintains the essential difference between the cytosol and the extracellular environment

other membranes

nucleus, endoplasmic recticulum, golgi apparatus, mitochondra, lysosomes, peroxisomes

lipid bilayer

provides the basic structure of the membrane, serves as a relatively impermeable barrier

50%

lipid molecules are __ of most animal cell membrane

amphiphilic

hydrophilic and hydrophobic

phospholipid

most abundant membrane lipids, have a polar head group and two hydrocarbon tails

unsaturated

one phospholipid tail has cis double bonds

saturated

one phospholipid tail does not have double bonds

phosphoglycerides

the main phospholipids in most animal cell membranes are

phosphoglycerides

have three carbon glycerol backbone, two long chain fatty acids, third carbon attached to phosphate group

phosphate group heads

Phosphatidylethanolamine, Phosphatidylserine
Phosphatidylcholine

phosphatidylethanolamine

Phosphatidylserine

Phosphatidylcholine

sphingomyelin

sphingosine

sphingomyelin

built from sphingosine, long acyl chain with an amino group and two hydroxyl groups at one end of the molecule

cholesterol

polar head group, rigid steroid ring structure, nonpolar hydrocarbon tail

glycolipids

sugar containing lipids, located on the non-cytosolic monolayer of the lipid bilayer, made from sphingosine, sugars addded in the lumen of golgi, cell recognition process

galactocerebroside

galactose sugar attached

Gm1 ganglioside

5 sugars attached

sialic acid

six carbon cyclic ring attached

lateral diffusion

___rarely flip flop, flexion rotation occurs

lipid componets of bilayer

convert extracellular signals into intracellular signals, cytosolic side of the bilayer is negatively charged

phospholipases

activated by extracellular signals to cleave specific phospholipid molecules serving as signal mediators

phosphatidylserine

signals next cell to phagocytose and digest the dead cells, phospholipid translocator is inactivated,

scramblase

transfers phospholipids nonspecifically in both directions between the two monolayers is activated

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