The cell secretes macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
The cell takes in macromolecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane.
A type of endocytosis- "cellular eating"
A type of endocytosis- "cellular drinking"
A type of endocytosis- Takes in specific molecules
A general term for any molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.
Actively transports hydrogen ions (protons) out of the cell.
Creates voltage accross the membrane.
The voltage accross the membrane.
Water channel proteins
The control of water balance
6 functions of membrane proteins
1. transport 2. enzyme activity 3. signal tranduction 4. intercellular joining 5. cell-to-cell recognition 6. attachment to the cytoskeleton and ECM
Penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer.
Span the whole membrane. In the hydrophobic core there is an a- helical secondary structure.
Not embedded in the lipid bilayer at all, they are appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane.
It has a hydrophobic and a hydrophillic region.
Some substances can cross and others cant.
Fastens cells into strong sheets, is strengthened by intermediate filaments.
Provideds channel between adjacent cells just large enough for passage of small ions and molecules.
Fuses membranes of adjacent cells, form continuous belts around the cells to prevent leakeage of exracellular fluid across a layer of epithelial cells.
The most abundant glycoprotein in the ECM of most animal cells.
The collagen fibers are embedded in a network woven from this. Glycoproteins of another class.
Attaches some cells. Attaches the ECM to the plasma membrane of the cell.
Membrane proteins that are bound to the ECM on one side and to microfilaments of the cytoskeleton on the other. This linkage can transmit stimuli between the cell's external environment and its interior.
Primary Cell wall
Young plant cells first secrete a relatively thin and flexible wall.
Between the primary walls of adjacent cells. A thin layer rich in sticky polysaccharides called pectins.
Secondary Cell Wall
Between the plasma membrane and primary wall.
Builds microfilaments, a globular protein
helps with movement. microfilaments.
A cell crawls along a surface by extending and flowing into cellular extensions.
A circular flow of cytoplasm within the cells.
Function: Maintanence of cell shape, cell motility (cilia/flagella), Chromosome movements in cell division, organelle movements
Maintenance of cell shape (tension bearing elements), Changes in cell shape, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming, cell motility (pseudopodia), cell division
Functions: Maintenance of cell shape, anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles, formation of nuclear lamina
Specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane that contains enzymes that tranfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing H2O2 as a byproduct.