order and superfamily
dogs and foxes, zoonotic
usually smaller then ascarids (1-2cm adults). characteristic hook appearance, buccal capsule is large with 3 pairs of marginal teeth. thin-shelled oval egg, 60x40um.
modes of infection
per os, percutaneous or penetration or oral mucosa, paratenic hosts, transplacental, transmammary
site of infection
pathogenesis and lesions
acute or chronic hemorrhagic anemia caused by adults. common in dogs under 1 yr old.
acute infections caused by anemia and low energy (lassitude). anemia can be accompanied by severe diarrhea with blood and mucus. weight loss poor coat loss of appetite in chronic infections.
dependent on clinical signs and history including hematological and fecal examinations. a few eggs in feces indicates infection but not disease. adult nematodes observed at necropsy. eggs on fecal flotation.
treatment and prevention
treat affected dogs with appropriate anthelmintics such as mebendazole, fenbendazole and nitroscanate. all of which kill adult and larval stages. young pups may need transfusion and parenteral iron.