What is another way of implying occipitalization of C1?
1. Atlas assimilation
What joint is formed between the odontoid process ossification centers and the centrum of C2?
1. The subdental synchondrosis
What is the name given to the condition in which the joint formed between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 persists beyond age 7?
1. Os Odontoideum
If the joint between the tip of the dens and odontoid process centers of ossification persists beyond age 12, what is the condition called?
1. Terminal Ossicle
What us a basilar impression?
Persistence of the nonunion of the basilar and condylar parts of the chondrocranium such that the cartilage deforms due to the weight of the brain
What is the gender bias associated with dorsalization of L1?
1. Males are two to three times more affected
What is characteristic of lumborization of S1?
1. The failure of synostosis between S1 & S2
2. Squaring of the vertebral body of S1
3. Flaring of the sacral ala
What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve?
1. Centers for vision & equilibrium will appear in the brain
2. Musculature attaching the skull, cervical region and upper thorax together develops as the head is held upright
3. The intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior
What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the head erect?
1. The righting reflex
What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve?
1. Crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward.
2. Muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars.
3. Intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior.
4. Walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development.
What is the relationship between curve direction and handedness?
1. A right handed person has a high probability for a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination
What names are given to conditions associated with abnormal curves of the vertebral column?
What are the curve classifications for military neck?
1. A kyphosis of hypolordotic curve
What are the curve classifications for humpback or hunchback?
1. A kyphosis or hyperkyphotic curve
What are the curve classifications for a swayback?
1. A lordosis or hyperlordotic curve
What are the classifications of scoliosis according to the Scoliosis Research Society?
Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of infantile idiopathic scoliosis.
1. Left thoracic
3. Less than 1% incidence
Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis.
1. Right thoracic
2. Females over 6 years old
3. 12% - 21% incidence
Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
1. Right thoracic or right thoracic and left lumbar
3. 80% incidence
Which subdivision of the iliocostalis muscle appears to have a reversal of origin - insertion?
1. Iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum
Which subdivision of the longissimus muscle appears to have a reversal of origin - insertion?
1. Longissimus thoracis pars lumborum
Which transversospinalis muscle attaches to articular and mammillary processes along the spine?
Contraction of the classic multifidis will result in what movements of the vertebral column?
1. Lateral flexion & rotation of the spine
2. Maintains the lumbar lordotic curve
3. Prevents entrapment of zygapophyseal capsular ligament during movement
Which subdivision of multifidis may demonstrate a reversal of origin - insertion?
1. Multifidis lumborum
Which suboccipital muscle lacks an attachment to the skull?
1. Obliquus capitis inferior
What is the proposed function of the suboccipital muscle group?
1. Postural stabilizers of the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints
Based on the density of muscle spindles, what is the proposed function of the interspinalis?
1. Acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with intertransversarii to coordinate the smooth movement of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture.
What is the origin of the medial belly of the lumbar intertransversarii?
1. Accessory process of transverse process L1-L4
2. Mammillary process of superior articular process L1-L4
Which muscle is said to form the iliolumbar ligament?
1. Quadratus lumborum
What is the origin of the psoas major?
1. Vertebral bodies T12, L1-L5, S1
2. Transverse processes of L1-L5
What are the types and examples of exteroceptors?
1. General or cutaneous sense organs such as free nerve endings, encapsulated endings and epidermal endings.
2. Special sense receptors for olfaction, vision, hearing and taste.
What are the examples of proprioceptors?
1. Golgi tendon organs
2. Neuromuscular spindles
3. Pacinian corpuscles
4. Inner ear receptors for equilibrium
5. Specialized receptors in joints