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Halogens

solvents
R-X

Alcohols

solvents, fuels, etc.
R-OH

Aldehydes

formaldehyde, preservative
R-CHO

Ketones

solvents
R-CO-R'

Carboxylic Acids

pungent odors
R-COOH

Esters

sweet, fruity odors
R-COO-R'

Ethers

anesthetics
R-O-R'

Amines

organic bases
R-NH2

Friedrich Wohler

first chemist to make organic compounds in laboratory

structural isomers

compounds with the same molecular formula, but different structural formula

optical isomers

enantiomers; non super imposable mirror images; different spatial arrangements

geometric isomers

cis-trans isomers; compounds that are identical in the arrangement of their covalent bonds but different in the spatial arrangement of atoms or groups of atoms

dextrorotatory

rotates to the right

levorotatory

rotates to the left

racemic

50% dextrorotatory and 50% levororotatory

saturated

no carbon double bonds

unsaturated

carbon double/triple bond

alkynes

CnH2n-2

addition reaction

break the carbon double bond

elimination reaction

form the carbon double bond

substitution reaction

replace "free radical" with a different "free radical"

aromatic

CnHn; stable compounds that form substitution reactions

esterfication reaction

makes an ester

chiral center

Greek word for hand; makes the molecule eligible for optical isomerism; carbon with 4 different atoms/groups bound to it

cyclo alkanes

CnH2n

alkanes

CnH2n + 2

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