experiences we have
genetic endowment we inherit from our biological parents
human mind at birth blank slate (tabula rasa) that experience writes upon. Shaped by nurturing, development and environmental influences.
development is an unfolding process guided by preprogrammed genetic information. (predictable, predetermined unfolding of inherited traits and abilities)
stage theories (discontinuity)
development progresses through a series of stages. Each stage involves a specific task. Once the task is accomplished, child moves on to next stage. Child changes qualitatively not quantitatively.
development is best described as a steady growth process. Developmental change occurring in small steps or increments. Skills and behaviors improve but do not change qualitatively.
child development vs
development is completed at the end of childhood (Freud and Piaget)
growth and change continue to occur throughout the entire life span. (Erikson)
similarities in development across cultures and historical time periods. Piaget all children progress through same stages cognitively at approximately the same age.
differences in development between people from collective cultures. (Urie Bronfenbrenner)
value common good over individual achievement.
value individual achievement and the pursuit of individual goals.
cognitive abilities (one's ability to think) are developed as individuals are developed as individuals mature physiologically and have opportunities to inter act with their environment. (Piage was predominant figure in field)
Piaget's term for the process of modifying an existing scheme in order to include a new experience.
Piaget's term for the process of modifying an experience to make it fit into a preexisting scheme.
the term Piaget used to describe the cognitive experience of imbalance that occurs when a child's experience does not fit into preexisting schema; this psychological state is the motivation to return to a state of mental equilibrium or balance.
Piaget's position because he argued children construct schema, organized patterns of thought or action based on the experiences they have actively exploring the environment.
Piaget's theory- stage theory
4 stages of cognitive development
1st. sensorimortor stage birth-2 years
2nd preoperational 2-7 years
3rd concrete operations 7-11 years
4th formal operations 11-15 years (also describes adult thinking)
cognitive behavior characterized by ego centrism, rigidity of thought semi-logical reasoning and limited social cognition (stage described how individuals think in terms of what they can't do than what they can do.
concrete operations stage
beginning of operational thinking; begins to dissenter able to consider viewpoints of others; able to understand reversibility, inversion, reciprocity and conservation; can group items into categories, make inferences about reality and engage in inductive reasoning; increase quantitative skill and manipulate symbols when given concrete examples to work with, threshold to higher level learning for students.
formal operations stage
learners at this stage can engage in logical abstract and hypothetical thought, can use the scientific method, can formulate hypotheses, isolate influences and identify cause and effect relationships; plan anticipate verbal cues, engage in deductive and inductive reasoning,operate on verbal statements exclusive of concrete experiences or examples. The highest levels of thought.
extended cognitive development to the study of moral reasoning.
learning theory or behaviorist perspective
developmental change as the product of learning
behavior is controlled by stimuli in the environment
founded a school of psychology called Behaviorism or Behavioral Psychology 1913
important figures in behaviorism or behavioral psychology
Ivan Pavlo, B.F. Skinne and Albert Bandura
(Pavlov) learning that takes place when reflexive behavior comes under the control of a novel stimulus in the environment.
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
stimulus that automatically elicits a motor response without training or conditioning
unconditional response (UCR)
untrained motor response, an inborn reflex is the result of a UCS-UCR connection
conditional stimulus (CS)
a stimulus that is consistently elicits the conditioned response after it has been repeatedly presented with unconditioned stimulus (Pavlov and the dogs salivating)
condition response can be elicited by related conditioned stimuli (similar tone frequencies)
the gradual process of conditioning a response process of conditioning a response to only occur to specific stimulus (a bell of a certain tone, rather than a collection of tones that are similar in frequency)
gradual eliminating of a behavior through non-reinforcment
extended Pavlov's work by studying classical conditioning of emotional responses in children. He believed at birth we have a small number of emotional responses in our behavioral repertoire (love, fear, and anger) He argued that through experiences we learn to associate new environmental stimuli with these reflexive emotional responses.
the foundation for classical conditioning theory of phobias or irrational fears
Watson, Raynor and Jones
B. F. Skinner
developed the learning theory operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning) behavior is shaped through the used of reinforcement and punishment.
rewarding a behavior
is anything a subject experiences after a behavior that reduces the probability the behavior will be repeated
process of learning whereby a new behavior is conditioned. Accomplished systematically reinforcing successive approximations of the global behavior.
reward or rewarding condition that is experienced after a behavioral response
when a noxious or unpleasant condition is removed when the behavioral response is emitted
created a major shift in thinking about learning in the late 1960's with a social-cognitive theory of learning or social learning theory
social learning theory (observational learning)
a contemporary modification of traditional learning theory. Our cognitions about behavior of others we observe influences our own behavior
learning results from seeing a model reinforced or punished for a behavior
the control over an individual's behavior that is a consequence of observing a model being reinforced
psychodynamic theories (psychoanalytic theories)
descended from Freud's theory of personality. Personality is beyond our awareness (unconscious hidden part of our personality)
1) childhood experiences determine adult personality
2) unconscious mental processes influence everyday behavior
3) conflict causes most human behavior
Id (at birth) Freud
pleasure principle; unconscious instincts; irrational; seeks instant gratification; contains the libido; avoids pain
Ego (around 6 months) Freud
reality principle; mediates id and reality; executvie branch of personality; cannot determine right from wrong
superego (around 6 yrs) Freud
morality principle; personal conscience; personal ideals can determine right from wrong; it's our conscience; doesn't consider reality only rules
the sexual instinct or drive (most of our personality exists below the level of awareness)
unwanted thoughts are pushed down into the unconscious
(memories, many thoughts and desires were unconscious, but influence our behavior)
part of personality, whatever we are aware of at any particular point in time
just below the surface of awareness, but easily retrieved a date, memory
unconscious method used by the ego to distort reality and thereby protects us from anxiety
can result from the irrational pleasure demands of the id or from the super ego causing guilty feelings about a real or imagined transgression
5 stages of Freud's psycho-sexual stages
anal 1-3 yrs
phallic 3-6 yrs
latency 6-12 yrs
genital puberty outward
(mouth) stimulation of mouth produces pleasure
sucking, biting, chewing
(anus) toilet training is a major task. Expelling and retaining feces produces pleasure
(genitals) self-stimulation of genitals produces pleasure
oedipal (boys) electra (girls)
erotic desires opposite- sex parent, fear of same- sex parent
resolve is identification with same-sex parent
oral, anal, phallic stages
most important for personality development
sexual feelings repressed, social contacts expanded beyond immediate family, focus shifts to school and same sex friends
(genitals) establishing intimate, sexual relations with others is the main focus
fixation of oral stage
obsessive eating, smoking, drinking, sarcasm, overly demanding, aggression
fixation of anal stage
extremely messy, overly orderly, overly concerned about punctuality, fear of dirt, love of bathroom humor, anxiety about sexual activities, overly giving, rebellious
fixation of phallic stage
excessive masturbation, flirts frequently, excessively modest, excessively timid, overly proud, promiscuity
8 stages of Erikson's psychosocial development
trust vs. mistrust (birth-1 yr)
autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-3 yrs)
initiative vs. guilt (3-6 yrs)
industry vs. inferiority (6-11 yrs)
identity vs. role confusion (adolescence)
intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood)
generativity vs. stagnation (adulthood)
ego integrity vs. despair (late adulthood)
trust vs. mistrust (childhood) birth-1 yr
infants needs must be met by responsive, sensitive caretakers. If this occurs, a basic sense of trust and optimism develops. If not, mistrust and fear of future results.
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
(childhood) 1-3 yrs
children begin to express self-control by climbing, exploring, touching, and toilet training.If restrained or punished too harshly, shame and doubt can develop
initiative vs. guilt (childhood) 3-6 yrs
children are asked to assume more responsibility. Through play, children learn to plan, undertake and carry out a task. Children who are criticized or discouraged from taking the initiative learn to feel guilty.
industry vs. inferiority (childhood) 6-11 yrs
In elementary school children learn skills that are valued by society. Success or failure while learning these skills can have a lasting effects on a child's feeling of adequacy
Identity vs. role confusion (adolescence)
identity finding out who we are, what we value, and where we are headed in life. If an integrated image as an unique person is established then sense of identity is developed. If not, role confusion results and can be expressed through anger and resentment
intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood)
establishing intimate long-term relationships with others. Successful resolve of identity crisis equals warm and open with others; unsure of identity equals unhealthy identity and may avoid others or keep them at an emotional distance.
generativity vs. stagnation (adulthood)
showing concerns for next generation, sharing life-acquired wisdom and caring for the growth of the community. Complacency leads to stagnation and potentially to depression and loneliness.
ego integrity vs. despair (late adulthood)
reflects upon life and believes that it has been meaningful and relatively successful sense of integrity is developed.
Meaningless and wasted opportunities then disgust and despair will lead to feeling it's too late to change
Erik Erikson's theory
personality continues to develop over the entire lifespan, didn't stress unconscious motives or desires, feels events that occur early in development can leave a permanent mark on one's later social-emotional development.
sociocultural theory (Lev Vygotsky)
the relationship between the children and the sociocultural environment. A child interacts with peers and adults not just objects in the environment.
reciprocal determinism (Bronfenbrenner)
a child impacts people and the environment as much as people and the environment impact the child
ecological system theory/ bioecological approach (Bronfenbrenner)
development takes place within the context of several sociocultural systems by several contexts/systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem
immediate environmental contexts the child experiences directly ex. the family, experiences at home may affect his/her performance at school or vice versa
interrelationships between events of different microsystems: experiences at home may affect his/her performance at school or vice versa
the contexts that significant others in the child's life directly experience but the child does not. ex. parent's work
the larger cultural context in which all other systems are embedded and which affect the interactions in those systems
process through which species evolve over time
a narrow frame of time within which a behavior must develop or it will never appear. ex. ducklings imprinting at a few days old. If time period missed it never will imprint
window of time that is most conducive for development of behavior or skill, ex. language, still can acquirer to some degree beyond this time
focus on discovering the adaptive survival value of specific animal or human behaviors; view human development over the life span as recapitulating the evolution of our species
Konrad Lorenz and John Bowlby
more influential theorists within evolutionary pyschologists
1) defining a research problem
2) proposing a hypothesis and making prediction
3) designing and conducting a research study
4) analyzing the data
5) communicating the results and building theories of behavior
a subset of a population selected to participate in the study, all of the participants make up the sample
includes all members of a class or set from which a smaller sample may be drawn and about whom the researcher wants to draw conclusions
every member of the population being studied has an equal chance of being picked for inclusion in the study, better to be able to generalize findings
every member of the population doesn't have an equal chance of being chosen
systematically manipulating and controlling one or more variables and then observe the response to this manipulation
the variable being manipulated
key characteristics of experiments. ex. the experiment group receives the independent variable but the control group does not
the response that is measured after the manipulation of the independent variable
a study where participants are not randomly assigned to the groups
conducted in the participants own setting preferred method when lab setting might affect outcome
double blind technique
Neither the participants nor the experimenter knows who is in the experimental and control groups until after done.
single subject experiment
1 subject the independent variable is systematically changed over time, behavior is compared at different times; time is the control
nonexperimental methods of research
don't include systematic manipulation of variables, cause and effect relationships can't be discussed
measuring 2 or more variable in order to determine if they are related
when the inverse relationship between variables measured one value increases as the other decreases
a number that represents the strength of the relationship between the variables measured.
descriptive or obeservational research
methods used to obtain accurate records of behavior without manipulating or controlling any variables.
research study that occurs in a natural setting that has not been manipulated.
the amount of agreement between 2 or more observers who simultaneously observe the same event.
the amount of agreement between 2 or more observers who simultaneously observe the same event.
descriptive research method that is an in-depth study of a single subject. (interviews, observations and test results)
descriptive method that requires the researcher to ask a group of people about behaviors, thoughts or opinions )questionnaries or interviews)
Advantages: can see reactions and can ask follow up questions
Disadvantage: person may not provide truthful or complete information.
responding to questions in a way that is perceived to be more acceptable to the interviewer
Research methods about development
2)longitudinal research design
cross-sectional research design
used to examine differences between different aged subjects at one point in time ex. 10-50 yrs, difference in short term memory
weakness of cross-sectional research
the difference in age or from two different birth cohorts (generations)
strength or cross-sectional research
quick and easy way to collect infromation on how different age groups differ at one point in time.
Longitudinal research design
measures changes on a variable of interest in the same group of participants at several points in their lives (ex. 30 participants age 10, then at 20 and again at 30)
weakness of longitudinal research design
time consuming and expensive also subject dropout and death)
strenght longitudinal research design
difference in performance can be interpreted as indicating changes that occur with age
sequential research design
Created by Schaie to examine developmental changes in intelligence in adulthood
sequential research design
combines cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. measures changes that occur with age, differences between people at different ages at one point in time and also quantify birth cohort effects.
genetically programmed biological plan of development that is relatively independent of experience.
3 changes in development
study the common traits and behaviors that are common in all humans
biological structure carried on chromosomes that contains the blueprint for inherited traits
found in the nucleus of each cell arrange in 22 pairs
carry genetic material that controls all of our characteristics with the exception of biological sex
23rd pair females xx males xy parents pass on one set of 23 chromosomes in each sperm cell or ovum. mother passes on an x whereas father can pass on x or y
fertilized ovum when it is still only one cell
fertilization occurs in fallopian tube, travels to the uterus and embeds into the uterine wall
all of the traits carried in a person;s genetic material inherited from his/her biological parents
traits that are actually expressed in the individual rather the sum total of inherited genetic material
helps couples make decisions about bearing children
describes a genetically programmed biological plan of development that is relatively independent of experience.
changes in the 3 areas of development
biological, cognitive, and psychosocial development - differ in the degree to which they are controlled by experience vs. maturation.
study the traits and behaviors that are common in all humans.
the biological structure carried on chromosomes that contains the blueprint for inherited traits.
found in the nucleus of each cell and are arranged in pairs 22
carry genetic material that controls all of our characteristics with the exception of biological sex
sex chromosomes (23rd pair)
females xx males xy biological parents pass on one set of 23 chromosomes in each sperm cell or ovum. Mother passes on an x whereas father can pass x or y.
fertilized ovum when it is still only one cell. fertilization occurs in fallopian tube, travels to the uterus and embeds into the uterine wall.
all of the traits carried in a person's genetic material inherited from her/his biological parents.
traits that are actually expressed in the individual rather than the sum total of inherited genetic material.
helps couples make decisions about bearing children.
sex-linked dominant trait
trait that is carried by an gene on a sex chromosome (x or y) that will always appear. Someone who has this trait may have also inherited the gene for the recessive trait and would therefore be called a "carrier". An individual with the dominant trait could have inherited instead two dominant trait genes.
sex-linked recesive trait
a gene on a sex chromosome (x or y) that only appears in the absence of the gene for the dominant trait, Someone who has this trait didn't inherit the dominant gene.
the physiological system of the body that contains glands which secrete hormones to stimulate growth and control the physiological functions of the body.
pituitary gland (master gland)
causes other glands to secrete hormones. (controlled by the hypothalamus of the brain)
growth hormone (GH)
secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates physical growth. Absence of GH infant will not develop to normal height (no taller than 4') GH also stimulates the adolescent growth spurt.
male sex hormones
the male sex hormone that is secreted by the testes and that directs the development of the male reproductive system during prenatal development and puberty. It along with other androgens stimulates the growth of secondary sex characteristics during puberty and stimulates the secretion of growth hormones which trigger the adolescent growth spurt.
one of the female sex hormones secreted by the ovaries which directs the development of the female reproductive system during prenatal development and puberty and also stimulates the release of growth hormones
one of the female sex hormones secreted by the ovaries which directs the development of the female sex system during prenatal development and during puberty, and stimulates the release of growth hormones.
1st trimester (germinal period)
1st two weeks of pregnancy
2nd trimester (period of the embryo)
2nd-8th wk of pregnancy (embryo 1" long at end)
third trimester (period of the fetus)
9th wk until birth
270 days or 40 wks
injection of sperm from the father into the uterus
sperm cell fertilizes an ovum outside the mother's body and then the fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus
any agent that may cross the placental barrier from mother to embryo/fetus causing abnormalities
scale to quickly assess the condition of a neonate immediately after birth and 5 mins. later
term used to refer to the newborn until about one month
term describes the fact that the left and right hemispheres of the brain control different functions ex. language=left
extension of arms when an infant feels a loss of support
spreading of toes when the bottom of the foot is stimulated
squeezing any object placed in the hand
if you stimulate the lips of a newborn he/she will begin to suck (present at birth)
term used for the general pattern of physical growth progressing from the center of the body outward to the extremities (sit independently before standing)
children tend to gain control over upper bodies before lower (reach and grasp before walking)
gross motor skills (standing)
requires coordination of large body parts
fine motor skills
coordination of small movements hands, fingers or toes (manipulating objects with fingers 9-12 months)
1st menstrual cycle (average 12 1/2 years) thought to have reached puberty
term for the biological and physiological decline that occurs with age that eventually causes death (maximum length of life 110 years
average length of life expected for members of a particular birth cohort
end of the sexual reproduction capacity. Typically spans 10 yrs, begins in a woman's early 50's
process of registering simulation and transmitting that information to cortical brain centers
process of assigning meaning to sensation
5 sensory perceptual system
although not fully developed are all functional at birth.
decreasing attention of infants to a familiar stimulus
what they choose to look at, listen to and taste. Ex. will look at edges of an object more than interior details
the inter connectedness of or perceptual systems. An experiment has shown that neonates will look longer at a nipple he/she previously sucked on but didn't see
the minimum intensity of sensory stimulation an observer can perceive
visual activity (birth)
the ability to see fine grating or details in a visual stimulus
a perceptual ability to follow a moving stimulus
the ability to see a three-dimensional world or depth field
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
perceptual constancy (Gestalt psychologist)
perceptual phenomena of size constancy, shape, lightness, color and constancy. These involve maintaining the same precept even when the information reaching the eye has significantly changed. Ex. an observer perceives a dog to be the same size when it stands 20 or 200 feet away
4 perceptual constancies
size, shape, brightness/lightness, and color constancy
familiar objects appear the same size despite changes in the distance between us and the objects
objects appear to be the same shape despite changes in their orientation toward the viewer
objects appear to stay the same in brightness despite changes in the among of light falling on them
the hue of an object appears to stay the same despite changes in the background lighting
describes the preferences for looking that appears in neonates
loss of visual acuity for near objects that is associated with aging
term for the process of construction cognitive schema that aid children's adjustment to the environment using the complimentary process of assimilation and accommodation
organized patterns of thought or action that the child constructs as the result of interacting with objects in the environment. These schema become more logical and organized with age
Vygotsky Sociocultural Theory
children interact not only with the objects in their environment but with people in a sociocultural context
guided participation (Vygotosky)
process by which cultural values and beliefs are transmitted from adult guides to children
zone of proximal development (Vygotsky)
the range of a child's problem-solving ability from what she can do working alone at a task, to what she can do working alone at a task, to what she can do working with someone who is cognitively advanced (teacher/parent)
the amount of teaching support given to a child as she/he moves from being less to more competent at a task.
private speech/egocentric speech (Vygotsky)
how language guides thinking in young children. He argued that children talk out loud to themselves while problem solving because this speech guides their problem-solving activity
inner speech (Vygotsky)
how language guides thought in an older child who talks to himself silently while solving a problem. the older child doesn't have to talk out loud to himself as younger children do when they are using private speech
the process through which information is prepared for storage in long-term memory
the process of finding information in long-term memory
Piaget memory systems
working memory/primary/short term
1st memory storage system in the information processing approach. This storage system automatically holds information that has registered in a sensory system. This storage is very brief and information will be lost unless it is transferred to working memory via the process of attention.
working memory/primary/short term
the second memory storage system in the information processing approach. Memories are stored here for a brief period of time up to a few minuets unless one uses rehearsal. Information from short term to long term memory
the process used to maintain information in working/primary memory
the process of retrieving information using a general clue only
the process of retrieving by matching stored information with information presented at the time of the test. This produces the feeling of having experienced the information before.
object permanence (Piaget birth-2yrs) preoperations stage
a concept that develops during sensorimotor intelligence. This is the understanding that physical objects have a separate existence from the perceiver
symbolic representation (Piaget birth-2 yrs)
the cognitive ability to use one thing to stand for another (broom used as a horse)
deffered imitation (Piaget birth-2 yrs)
ability to represent another person's action store this representation and later retrieve it in order to imitate it. Piaget argued this was a sign that a child had achieved symbolic representation
the understanding that even though the perceptual characteristics of matter may change the amount of it doesn't change if you do not add or take anything away. (ex. pouring water from a tall glass into a short wide glass)
the ability to organize objects in order from least to most amount. (ex rank order objects on a dimension like height or length)
the ability to classify objects in a hierarchical organization with subordinate and superordinate levels. (ex. 5 green beads and 3 red beads are there more green beads all together. 8 beads all together 5 green.
egocentric thinking (Piaget)
a form of thinking typical of the preoperational child in which the child can only view the world from his or her own perspective and can't take the perspective of others.
transductive reasoning (piaget)
a characteristic of the illogical reasoning of the preoperational child. This is inaccurate thinking about cause and effect that have simply occurred together are causally related.
animistic thinking (Piaget)
children in this stage tend to project human qualities onto inanimate objects
the ability to mentally rewind a thought pattern
heightened concern about other peoples thoughts. Imaginary audience comes from the belief that other people are focused on what you think is important. ex. teen has a pimple and is very aware of it he/she believes everyone else will be.
believing what you feel and experience is unique, no one has ever been as sad, happy, in love or disappointed as she/he
Post fromal operations (Labouvie-Vief)
this thinking is characterized by the understanding that there is often more than one right answer to a problem
a term that means a wealth of practical knowledge and insight into life/s challenges that is a result of lived experience. While wisdom normally correlates with age, it is not only found in the elderly
being consciously aware of one's own cognitive processing
Pretend play (Piaget)
A form of play that Piaget signaled the development of symbolic representation. Children pretending can use an object to take the place of another absent object
Home scale (Cadwell Bradley)
(Home observation for measurement of the environment)
The method used to assess the amount of cognitive stimulation in the home environment. The amount of appropriate play materials, parental involvement and amount of intellectual stimulation.
The linguist who argue humans are prepared at birth to acquire language. He argued that the human brain is pre-wired with a "language acquisition device" distinguished between a sentence's surface structure (its underlying meaning.
Child's first words are spoken
between 10-12 months (one word stage)
Outline of language development
cooing and crying
babbling (repetition of syllables) 6 months
two-word stage 18-20 months
telegraphic speech right behind two-word stage
verb tenses, meaning modifiers, pronouns ect. added
syntax acquired (native language by 5yrs)
1st stage begins with reflexive, spontaneous sounds that elicit caregivers' vocalizations. The caregivers response reinforces the baby's cooing
2nd stage vocalizations elicit responses from others in the infant's environment which in turn reinforce the child's babbling stage will be shaped into the baby's 1st words.
The term for a word that stands for a sentence or more in the early speech of children. A one-word utterance, e.g. "up" may mean "Grandma please pick me up"
the term for the abbreviated speech of young children in which two or three words combination's stand in place of complex sentences. In this way the speech is economical.
semantic over extension
applying a category label e.g. "ball" to things that are not members of the category, but share some similar characteristic(s) e.g. globe
Fast mapping (Susan Carey)
the process is used during the rapid vocabulary growth of the second year. Children will connect a word to an underlying meaning after only a brief encounter.
applying syntactic rules as if there were no exceptions to these rules. e.g. children may say goed instead of went because the are applying the rule that says to make a verb past tense add ed.
contains short sentences that are often repeated, tends to consist of concrete nouns and action verbs, enunciated clearly, often in a high pitched voice.
adult responses that elaborate on children's speech, increasing its complexity
Adult responses that restructure children's grammatically inaccurate speech into correct form.
Language is innate, biologically based. We are born with a capacity for language that is realized with minimal assistance from the environment.
language acquisition device (Noam Chomsky)
language acquisition is native to human beings, early childhood; natural predisposition, pre-wired to look for grammatical rules
a time when a certain kind of growth or development is most likely to happen or happens most readily.
An approach to language development that argues humans are born with tabula rasa and learn language through experience.
language develops according to laws of learning like any other learned behavior --> adults serve as models (observe and imitate)
the term used for cognitive power or ability
Concluded cognitive abilities could be narrowed down to one critical g-factor, or general intelligence. (the s-factor represents specific knowledge needed to answer questions on a particular test.)
Proposed that intelligence consists of 150 distinct abilities.
used a statistical technique known as factor analysis to find seven independent primary mental abilities: numerical, reasoning, verbal fluency, spatial visualization, perceptual ability, memory and verbal comprehension.
Raymond B. Cattell
Argued that a g-factor does exist, but cognitive ability consists of fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence.
reasoning and problem solving
specific knowledge gained from applying fluid intelligence.
Proposed a triarchic theory of intelligence that specifies 3 important parts of intelligence
Triarchic theory of intelligence
1. componential intelligence (includes meta components performance components and knowledge acquisition components)
2. experiential intelligence (ablilites to deal with novelty and to automatize processing)
3. contextual intelligence (practical intelligence and social intelligence)
Theory of multiple intelligences (Howard Gardner)
7 different components of intelligence
language ability, logical, mathematical thinking, spatial thinking, musical, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal and interapersonal thinking
8 different cognitive abilities. This approach to intelligence defines intelligence more broadly compared to traditional view of intelligence.
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon
1st effective test of intelligence early 1900's
30 sub-tests containing problems of increasing difficulty; measured children's judgmental, reasoning and comprehension. 1st published test 1905 revised 1908 and 1911
Mental age (1908 revision)
measure of a child's intellectual level that is independent of the child's chronological age (actual age)
Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale
still used today 1st published 1916 Lewis Terman and colleagues revised 1937,1960, and 1986
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
A calculation that quantifies intelligence by dividing mental age by chronological age. the mean score for IQ is 100
1939 published a test exclusively for adults WAIS-R or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Revised
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Revised (for children 4-6 yrs of age)
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, 3rd edition (for children 6-16 yrs of age)
WAIS-R include verbal sub-tests and performance sub-tests
Verbal Sub-tests: information, comprehension, arithmetic, similarities, digit span and vocabulary
Performance Sub-tests: digit symbol, picture completion, block design, picture arrangement and object assembly
Bayley Scales of Infant Intelligence
2-30 months 3 scales on test motor, mental and infant behavior record
traditional intelligence test have been shown to be biased against those from the lower socioeconomic class. It is theorized that this is because test items are drawn from experience of members of the middle upper classes.
culture fair intelligence test
to create a test that is not biased against any group.
Twin studies (Frances Galton)
A research technique to investigate the nature vs. nurture controversy.
concordance rates for traits in monozygotic and dizygotic twins are assessed. If a trait is controlled by heredity there should be a greater concordance for that trait among monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins, biological siblings and unrelated people. Examining concordance rates between monozygotic twins separated at birth raised appart represents the best test of the nature vs.nurture question
rapid decline in intellectual performance shortly before death
emotional intelligence (EQ) Daniel Goldman
the type of intelligence that is the ability to think about and adapt to emotion. People with high EQ have an exceptional ability to understand and deal with their emotions and the emotions expressed by other people.
A characteristic of thinking separate from intelligence. theorists argue a key component of creativity is divergent thinking.
believed to be the key component of creativity, this form of thinking involves generating many different possible solutions to a problem that has no right answer e.g. Springfield possible answer capital of Illinois.
thinking that works toward the one best answer to a problem
reasoning about social situations and social relationships
theory of mind
the understanding that people have states of mind and what takes place in the mind of others is responsible for guiding their reactions.
False belief task
a test that determines if a child has a theory of mind. A child who passes this test says for example a person will look for a toy in a basket that person believes the toy is in rather than the basket the child knows contains the toy
A child's ability to recognize himself in a mirror.
Mirror test of self-recognition (Lewis and Brooks-Gunn)
tests for self-recognition in infants. Infants at least 18 months old who have rouge placed on their nose will look in the mirror and rub their own nose rather than rub the mirror as younger infants did.
delay of gratification
the ability to wait for an anticipated reward or goal
the collection of behaviors and traits that are expected for males and females in a society
the gender role stereotypically associated with females in our society. (caring, nurturing and compliant)
the gender role stereotypically associated with males in our society. (aggressive, dominant and competitive)
a gender role that combines the positive elements of both the masculine and feminine gender role.
gender stereo types
restrictive social views that male and females should adhere to the masculine and feminine gender roles, respectively.
the understanding that biological sex remains the same throughout life.
the understanding that a person's biological sex doesn't change even if that person makes significant changes to his/her appearance
the social process of identifying roles, traits or objects as more appropriate for one or the other gender
social learning theory
children learn gender roles because they are rewarded for appropriate gender behaviors and punished for inappropriate gender behaviors. Children watch and imitate the behaviors of others
cognitive theory Kohlberg
children learn about gender the same way they acquire other cognitive concepts. 1st preschool children acquire gender identity. Once these concepts are acquired children engage in gender type behavior, they prefer the same gender playmates, activities ect.
proposed that preschool children lack gender constancy
psychoanalytic theory (Freud)
children establish their gender role identity as a result of identification with their same sex parents during the phalic stage
the internalized view of the self as masculine, feminine or androgynous
studied moral reasoning and suggested a stage model of moral development
stage model of moral development
1. pre-conventional moral reasoning
2. conventional moral reasoning
3. post-conventional moral reasoning
Level 1 Pre-conventional morality
stage 1- punishment orientation-a person complies with rules during this stage in order to avoid punishment.
stage 2- Reward orientation-an action is determined by one's own needs
Level 2 conventional morality
stage 3 good girl/good boy orientation- good behavior is that which pleases others and gets their approval.
stage 4 authority orientation-emphasis is on upholding the law, order and authority and doing one's duty by following so
Level 3 post-conventional morality
stage 5 social contract orientation-flexible understanding that people obey rule because they are necessary for the social order but that rules can change if there are good reasons better alternatives.
Stage 6 morality of individual principles of orientation-behavior is directed by self-chosen ethical principles. High value is placed on justice, dignity and equality.
morality or care vs
morality of justice
morality of care (Carol Gilligan)
the style of moral reasoning found generally in females. Woman think about other people's needs and how decisions affect interpersonal relationships when deliberating about moral dilemmas. Moral reasoning is contextualized in people with this style.
morality of justice (Carol Gilligan)
the style of moral reasoning found generally in males. Males tend to make decisions about right and wrong by applying general universal immutable principles of justice.
Imprinting (Konrad Lorenz)
rapid learning that occurs during a brief receptive period, typically soon after birth or hatching, and establishes a long-lasting behavioral response to a specific individual or object, as attachment to parent, offspring, or site.
Investigated the role of feeding in the formation of an attachment relationship. Observed the behavior of monkeys raised with 2 surrogate mothers (wire mesh mom and terry cloth mom) The monkeys clung to terry cloth mom
may begin as early as 6 months usually peaks around 18 months and then gradually declines
Ainsworth strange situation
measures the quality of the attachment relationship. This method involves observing a child's reactions when his/her caregiver leaves the room and when the caregiver returns.This method has been criticized as creating an artificial situation for the caregiver and child.
children use parent as secure base from which they explore the new environment. They become upset when their mother leaves the room but are glad to see her and go to her when she returns
insecure attachment/Anxious Ambivalent
children tend not to use the parent as a secure base (and may often cling or refuse to leave their mother) They become very upset when she leaves and often appear angry or become more upset when she returns
Children seek little contact with their mother and are not concerned when she leaves. Usually avoid interaction when she returns
Children alternatively approach and avoid contact with their mother. They appear confused about whether to seek or avoid her. Often appears in abused children
Sensitive parenting/care giving
(requirement for a secure attachment relationship to form) This care giving style is consistent, prompt and appropriate responding to the child's needs