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Indo-Europeans migrated into Europe, India, and Southwest Asia and interacted with people living there

Indo-Europeans

A group of nomadic peoples who may have come from the steppes

Steppes

Dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus [mountains between the Black and Caspian seas]

Language Family Resemblances

English, Sanskrit, Persian, Spanish, German

Migrations

Movements of a people from one region to another

Hittites

Indo-European speakers who occupied Anatolia by about 2000 B.C.

Anatolia, also called Asia Minor

A huge peninsula in modern-day Turkey that juts out into the Black and Mediterranean seas. A high, rocky plateau, rich in timber and agriculture

Akkadian

Language adopted by Hittites for international use

Aryans

Indo-European people

Vedas

Sacred literature; Four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for performing rituals

Rig Veda

Most important of the collection of Vedas; 1,028 hyms to Aryan gods

Dasas

Aryan's enemy; Spoke a different language, shorter, darker in skin color, town dwellers

Brahmins

Priests (1st on varna system)

Kshatriyas

Rulers and warriors (2nd on varna system)

Vaishyas

Peasants and farmers (3rd on V.S.)

Shudras

Laborers (Last)

Varna

The social system

Mahabharata

Reflects struggles that took place in India as the Aryan kings worked to control Indian lands

Bhagavad Gita

One part of the Mahabharata

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