Biological Influences Unit - Old Test Questions

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Genes form templates for the production of:

proteins.

Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere is most likely to reduce people's ability to:

solve arithmetic problems.

The depolarization of an axon is most likely to occur when:

positively charged ions rush into the axon.

Identical twins originate from:

the fertilization of a single egg cell and a single sperm cell.

The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a(n):

MRI.

A football quarterback can simultaneously make calculations of receiver distances, player movements, and gravitational forces. This best illustrates the activity of multiple:

neural networks.

Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell?

thalamus

The sense of hearing is to the ________ lobes as the sense of touch is to the ________ lobes.

temporal; parietal

The movement of voluntary skeletal muscles involved in doing calisthenics is under the control of the

somatic nervous system

The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n):

action potential.

The release of epinephrine into the bloodstream is most likely to:

accelerate heartbeat.

The fact that Maria was a little later than her sisters in going through puberty can be attributed to the action of her

gonads

Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the formation of new memories?

hippocampus

The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the:

myelin sheath.

Information travels from the spinal cord to the brain via:

interneurons.

The medulla is to the control of ________ as the cerebellum is to the control of ________.

breathing; walking

____ nerves receive information, while ____ nerves carry out instructions.

Afferent; efferent

A neurologist believes that Hillary may have epilepsy. To confirm this diagnosis the neurologist needs to record the overall electrical activity in Hillary's brain. The best way for the neurologist to obtain this information would be to use

an electroencephalograph (EEG)

Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. The two children most clearly differ in:

temperament.

Agonists are chemicals that may mimic the activity of:

neurotransmitters.

In computers, when the print command is executed, a cable carries this signal from the computer to the printer. In comparing a computer to a neuron, the cable that carries the signal between the computer and the printer would be equivalent to

the axon

Which region of the human brain best distinguishes us from other animals?

cerebral cortex

The two most basic divisions of the nervous system are the

central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system

A good analogy for the way in which a neurotransmitter binds to receptor sites is

a key fitting in the lock of a door

Imagine that a picture of a blue circle is briefly flashed in the left visual field of an individual with a severed corpus callosum. At the same time, a picture of a red square is briefly flashed in the right visual field. Based on Roger Sperry's work with split-brain patients, you could predict that this individual will say

"I saw a red square."

Signal reception is to ________ as signal transmission is to ________.

dendrite; axon

When Stoyka was a child, a brain disease required the surgical removal of her left cerebral hemisphere. Stoyka is now a successful college student who lives a normal life. Her success best illustrates the importance of:

plasticity.

A drug that mimics the effects of a particular neurotransmitter or blocks its reuptake is called a(n):

agonist.

Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps through which neurotransmitters progress during synaptic transmission?

synthesis, release, binding, inactivation, reuptake

Robyn has just eaten a full meal and is now relaxing. Robyn's ____ is in primary control at this time.

parasympathetic nervous system

The endocrine system

secretes hormones

After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most likely to have difficulty:

playing his guitar.

José has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of:

endorphins.

Heritability refers to the extent to which:

trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations.

The ability to recognize faces with the right hemisphere but not with the left hemisphere best illustrates:

lateralization.

After Miguel's recent automobile accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Broca's area. It is likely that Miguel will have difficulty:

speaking fluently.

The largest and most complex part of the human brain is the

cerebrum

In order for you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ________ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system.

sensory neurons

The threadlike structures that contain genes are called:

chromosomes.

Shot in the head, the victim died instantly because the bullet entered the ____, the portion of the hindbrain that regulates breathing.

medulla

With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which:

positively charged ions are pumped back outside a neural membrane.

An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to:

depression.

If you have difficulty understanding the meaning of someone's speech, you may suspect damage to

Wernicke's area

The ____ nervous system mobilizes the body when one needs to exert tremendous energy (such as flee from an attacker).

sympathetic

Which of the following does not belong with the other four?

thalamus

The brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is the:

hypothalamus

The technique in which radioactively tagged chemicals are introduced into the brain and then equipment monitors where the chemicals appear in the brain is

positron emission tomography

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