Biology Chapter 12 Vocab

24 terms by raylamb30 Plus

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Nucleotides

molecules that make up DNA

Histones

protein that is bound to DNA and coiled around

Nuclesomes

when the DNA is coiled around several histones

Base pairing

bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine

Replication

copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA

Helicase

an enzyme used in separating strands of DNA

DNA polymerase

an enzyme that binds nucleotides together to form a DNA molecule by following the procedure of base pairing

Genes

are coded DNA instructions that control the production of proteins within the cell

Messenger RNA

RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell

Ribosomal RNA

RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes

Transfer RNA

RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis

Transcription

Process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into the complementary sequence of RNA

RNA polymerase

Enzyme that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription

Promoter

region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA

Intron

intervening sequence of DNA; does not code for a protein

Exon

expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein

Codon

three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid

Translation

decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain

Anticodon

group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

Polypeptide chain

a sequence of amino acids that make different types of proteins

Mutation

are changes in the genetic material

Point Mutation

mutations involving changes in one or a few nucleotides

Frameshift mutation

mutation that shifts the sequence by inserting or deleting a nucleotide

Polyploidy

condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes

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