# Force and Motion

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vocabulary words for 5th grade force and motion science unit

### gravity

the invisible force of attraction between all masses in the universe (pull)

### law

statement about how things work in nature that seems to be true

### Isaacc Newton

Defined the laws of motion and gravity. Tried to explain motion of the universe.

### laws of motion

Three laws, came up by Sir Isaac Newton, that describe how objects move in relation to the forces acting on them.

### unbalanced force

an object to start moving, stop moving, or change direction

### 1st law of motion

an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion unless acted on by an unbalanced force

### friction

the resistance caused when one object is moved in contact with another

### 2nd law of motion

an object with an unbalanced force acting on it will accelerate in the direction of that force...f=m(a) ; force = mass times acceleration

### 3rd Law of Motion

for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

### inertia

likely to maintain a state of rest unless acted upon by an external force

### mass

the amount of matter in an object

### momentum

(n) the force with which something moves

### scales

the ratio between the size of something and a representation of it

### weight

A measure of the force of gravity on an object

### motion

a change of position of an object

### velocity

the measure of the speed and the direction of an object

### newton

a measurement of force

### speed

the measure of an objects distance during a unit of time

### force

push or pull of any kind

### acceleration

any change in the speed or direction of an object's motion

### thrust

the force that moves an object forward

### drag

the force that slows an object down

### lift

upward force on an object

### energy

the ability to do work

### work

the transfer of energy from one object to another

### potential energy

stored energy, energy ready to be released

### kinetic energy

the energy of motion

### balanced force

two or more forces that are equal and opposite of one another; do not cause change in motion

unit of force

### air resistance

frictional force air exerts on a moving object; acts opposite in direction to the object's motion

### matter

that which has mass and occupies space; solid, liquid, or gas

### evaporation

The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas

### transpiration

evaporation of water from a plant's leaves

### condensation

the process of changing from a gas to a liquid or solid state

### precipitation

any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface; rain, snow, sleet, or hail

### runoff

water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground

### water cycle

the continuous movement of water between Earth's surface and the air, changing from liquid to gas to liquid

### conduction

the transfer of energy as heat through touching substances

### convection

the transfer of heat by the movement of a liquid or a gas

the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves; Sun is the main source

### temperature

a measure of heat

### heat

thermal energy that is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation

### chemical change

a change in matter that produces one or more new substances

### physical change

A change in size, shape, or state of matter; A change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance

### chemical reaction

process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals

### insulator

a material that does not conduct heat well

### solid

state of matter in which particles are packed tightly together and it maintains its shape

### liquid

state of matter in which the particles flow past each other and it takes on the shape of its container

### gas

matter that does not have a definite shape or volume; has particles that move at high speeds in all directions

### law of conservation

In any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is conserved; mass can be neither created nor destroyed.

Example: