Terms List Ch. 23 & 24

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71 terms · Gilded Age Industrial Revolution

Presidential Legacies

The Ideas and beliefs of a president that will continue to be remembered or pursued even after he is removed from office.

Ulysses Grant

He was the 18th president of the United States and was a great military hero of the Civil War. This is how he won the election, his fame. He led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives, the spoils system at its worse. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had and he was truly not a man who should have been president, he was easily persuaded.

Rutherford Hayes

He was an American politician and lawyer as well as the nineteenth President of the United States. Hayes was elected President by one electoral vote after the highly disputed election of 1876. He lost the popular vote to Samuel J. Tilden (Democrat). Hayes was the only president whose election was decided by a congressional commission. They used the Compromise of 1877 to elect 15 delegates to vote on who would be the president and Hayes was to be it if he agreed to end Reconstruction.

James Garfield

He was the Republican candidate who barely beat Winfield Scott Hancock. Garfield believed people should earn their jobs (different than the spoils system) and he tried to immediately avoid patronage. He also wanted to fix the corruption around this time but after only a few months in office (6?) he was assassinated in order for a Stalwart (Arthur) to be president.

Grover Cleveland

He was the democratic presidential candidate for the 1884 election. His republican opponent, James G. Blaine, was involved in several questionable deals, but Cleveland had an illegitimate child. There was new lows reached with the mudslinging in the election but Cleveland won, becoming the first democratic president since Buchanan. He took few initiatives, but he was effective in dealing with excessive military pensions. He placated both North and South by appointing some former Confederates to office, but sticking mostly with Northerners. Cleveland also forced Congress to discuss lowering the tariff, although the issue could not be resolved before he was defeated by Benjamin Harrison in the 1888 election. He then became the 24th president of the United States one of the only men to be reelected in office. He was actually very honest.

Benjamin Harrison

The 23rd President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893.The McKinley Tariff was issued during his term and federal spending that reached one billion dollars. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress" for it. He lost to Cleveland in the next election.

McKinley

He was engulfed in the gold and silver monetary issue and emerged as the chief point of contention between the parties. He was a republican and liked raising tariffs he believed in the gold standard.

Grand Army of the Republic

This organization originated post civil war by former Union soldiers after the Civil War. It lobbied Congress for aid and pensions for former Union soldiers. It was also a powerful lobbying influence within the Republican party. The Republican party was very influenced by them.

Conkling

This was the leader of a group for Republicans called the Stalwarts. The Stalwarts loved the spoils system and supported it if it was being threatened. They were opposed by many like Blaine. The stalwarts were the ones to kill President Garfield.

Liberal Republicans

Party formed in 1872 that came from the Republican Party which argued that they wanted to end Reconstruction. They wanted an honest government. They nominated Greeley as their candidate. The Democratic Party had also chosen Greeley, hoping that Grant would be defeated if they united against him. But Regular Republicans renominated Grant. The Republicans controlled enough Black votes to gain victory for Grant.

Greenback Labor Party

Political party devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation. They wanted to increase circulation of coined silver. However during this time Republicans made it hard to do so even though they were beneficial in some ways.

Boss Tweed

He was the head of Tammany Hall which was New York City's powerful democratic political machine. He ran the Tweed "Ring" into fraud and corruption. They bought and payed off many people and rooted their people into office. In the end he ended up in jail where he died.

James Blaine

He was the republican leader from maine and he also led the Half-Breed faction of the party. He was a firm supporter of hard money programs and protective tariffs and also supported Rutherford B. Hayes. Served as President Garfield and President Harrison's secretary of state. He lost the presidency when the Mulligan letters were revealed and hurt his campaign.

Mark Twain

He was America's most popular author, but also renowned platform lecturer. He wrote The Gilded Age. This is why the time period is called the "Gilded Age" from Twain's idea.

Charles Guiteau

He was an American lawyer who assassinated President James A. Garfield on July 2, 1881. He was executed by hanging and he believed that now the Stalwarts would take over (Arthur).

Thomas Reed

He was the Republican Speaker of the House from Maine. He was a master debator and in charge of Congress almost, called the "Czar". He dominated the "billion-dollar" Congress and showered pensions on Civil War veterans, and increased government purchases of silver.

Fisk and Gould

They planned to bid price of gold upward on Black Friday to get rich. They payed off Grant not too release gold however, this plan did not work because the Treasury had to release money.

The Populists

Out of the Farmers' Alliances the People's Party emerged. They're platform including nationalizing the railroads (federal government in control), telephones, and telegraph; instituting a graduated income tax; and creating a new federal subtreasury. They attempted to circulate free coinage of sliver as well.

Waving the Bloody Shirt

This was an expression used as a vote getting strategy by the Republicans during the election of 1876. They blamed corruption and the Civil War problems on the Democrats.

Ohio Idea

Proposal by midwestern Democratic delegates to redeem federal war bonds in greenbacks instead of gold, to keep more money in circulation and interest rates low. It however was not successful.

Resumption Act

It stated that the government would continue of greenbacks from circulation and to the redemption of all paper circulation and to the redemption of all paper currency in gold at face value beginning in 1879. It was administered by Republicans.

Stalwart

A Faction who's leader was Roscoe Conkling. They were adamant of the spoils system and patronage in government leading to many problematic issues.

Half-Breeds

Was applied to the moderate faction of the Republican Party. They backed Hayes' lenient treatment of the South and supported moderate civil service reform. James G. Blaine of Maine was the leader of this group, but failed to win the party nomination in 1876.

Ticket Splitting

This is a process when voters are willing to vote for the nominees of two different parties on the same ballot. Someone could vote for a Republican president but a Democratic congress.

Civil Rights Act of 1875

Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court (Civil Rights Cases).

Crop-lien system

This system allowed farmers to get more credit.The farmers used it to pay back other loans and increase production.

Pendleton Act

Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service. It was to stop the continuance of the spoils system. It made it so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.

Migwumps

Was the name of party switchers who changed their votes after the mudslinging in the presidential campaign with Blaine.

Wilson-Gorman

This tariff was passed by Cleveland in his 2nd term in office. It was intended to lower the McKinley tariff, but it went through Congress, and it barely did lower the McKinley tariff. It was apparantly unconstitutional to the Supreme Court.

Compromise of 1877

Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet and 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river. In return Hayes would become president.

Chinese Exclusion Act

This was passed in 1882 and it banned Chinese immigration in the United States because nativists and others thought of them as a threat. This caused Chinese immigration to substantially decrease.

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

In 1890, an act was passed so that the treasury would by 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly and pay those who mined it in notes that were redeemable in either gold or silver. This was good for farmers because it caused inflation.

Credit Moblier

One of the scandals during Grant's presidency. The Union Pacific Railroad had formed the Credit Mobilier construction company and then hired themselves at inflated prices to build the railroad line. The company then bought off corrupted politicians.

Plessy v. Ferguson

Was the famous case that rendered African Americans "Separate but equal" this was not reversed until the case, Brown vs. Board of Education. It made segregation legal.

Panic of 1873

This was an economic depression post Civil War. It was caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands and Grant did not help in government with it at all.

Union Pacific Railroad

Began in Omaha in 1865 and went west. It joined with the Central Pacific Railroad. One of our first transcontinental railroads and they hired many Irish immigrants.

Central Pacific Railroad

This railroad started building in Sacramento, California and built eastward to make the first Transcontinental Railroad. It joined with the Union Pacific Railroad and many workers had to fight because Indians were defending their land.

Lelan Stanford

He was the governor of California and helped build the Centeral Pacific Railroad.

James Hill

He was a successful railroad builder, and was considered as the best. He knew that the success of the railroad would depend on the prosperity of those who used it. He built the Great Northern Railway with support and cooperation from farmers and ranchers instead of using government funding.

Cornelius Vanderbilt

He was a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He became famous by the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.

Pullman

In 1894, it was a strike at this location was ordered to halt and was told that their striking violation the Sherman anti-trust act of 1890. The Sherman anti-trust at was created to stop monopolies from limiting competition. Instead it was used against labor unions, saying that they limited competition, and forcing workers to avoid unions.

The Grange

It was a farmers' movement involving the affiliation of local farmers into area "granges" to work for their political and economic advantages. The Granger movement was successful in regulating the railroads and grain warehouses.

Alexander Graham Bell

Creator of the telephone. It revolutionized communication in the United States.

Thomas Edison

He was a genius and he was the most famous for the lightbulb. He also created the phonograph, mimeograph and the first movie film.

JP Morgan

Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was one of the Robber barons. He was called the bankers of all bankers.

Andrew Carnegie

Creates Carnegie Steel using the Bessemer process. He was scottish and he gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production and could raise prices for others.

John D. Rockefeller

An American industrialist and philanthropist. He was the richest man who developed the trust and created Standard Oil Company. He was ruthless in the world of business and controlled the petroleum industry. He was an example of how the new rich was taking over the place that old patricians once held. He was very corruptive and ran his competition to the ground.

James Duke

He took advantage of the growing tobacco business in the South. He formed the American Tobacco Company in 1890.

Henry Grady

He was the editor of the Atlanta Constitution. He believed in an economically diversified South with industries and small farms. He was a leading journalist.

Charles Gibson

He was a graphic artist and created the "Gibson girl". The picture of the independent beautiful ideal American woman. It was a new image.

Samuel Gompers

He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers. There tactics included collective bargaining.

Ghost Towns

They were in between towns, between major railroad towns and hot spots. These towns were "ghost" after the gold rush.

Irish Paddies

These were Irish immigrants who built the Union Pacific Railroad. They had to pick up rifles and fight when Indians began to fight for their original land.

Westinghouse Air Brake

This was a new invention during the industrial times. It was an efficient and safe stopping method for trains.

Standardized time zones

Now with the transcontinental railroading system time had to be structured in order to make deadlines and scheduling. There were specific time zones depending on the sun that we still use today.

Lords of the rail

They replaced the Southern Lords of the lash (slave whipping) as industry rose. Rail represented railroads and the people who controlled them .

Stock Watering

This was price manipulation by strategic stock brokers. It was the term for selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.

Pool

A system in which several railroad companies agreed to divide up business in an area. This was a strategic method where they can reap the most profits.

Interstate Commerce Act

This act was made after many appealed to government on corruption. It prohibited rebates and pools, required railroads to publish rates, forbade discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line.

Vertical integration

This was the method Andrew Carnegie used. He bought all aspects of his production. The single manufacturer controls all of the steps used to change raw materials into finished products.

Trust

It was a combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition. They were almost like cartels.

Bessemer Process

It was a new and industrial process for making steel. It took the impurities out of the steel and made it stronger. It made the steel faster to create and cheaper to sell.

Gospel of Wealth

This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. It was lenient to the idea of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

This act banned any formations that would restrict trade, not distinguishing between bad and good trusts. The act was a hamper on worker unions, but it showed that the government was slowly moving away from laissez faire ideals.

Yellows Dog Contracts

They were contracts managers made their workers sign so they wouldn't join labor unions. This was a method used to regulate their workers.

Company Town

A town or city in which most or all real estate, buildings are owned by a single company. This was the case in some areas during this time.

National Labor Union

It was the first large scale national of labors They had many achievements including persuaded congress to legalize an 8 hour day for government workers. Some refused to admit African Americans as members in their union.

Knights of Labor

It was a labor union that grew out of the collapse of the National Labor Union. It was replaced by AF of L after a number of bad strikes.

AFL

The American Federation of Labor. A union of skilled workers from one or more trades which focused on collective bargaining. They would negotiate between labor and management. They wanted to reach written agreements on wages hours and working conditions. The AFL used strikes as a major tactic to win higher wages and shorter work weeks. They also wanted better working conditions.

Wedding of the rails

This was the nickname for the site where the Union Pacific and Central pacific met. It was in Utah.

Wabash Case

In this case, the Supreme Court severely limited the right of states to regulate businesses that dealt with interstate commerce. This meant only the federal government had a power that had been granted to the states. Farmers responded to this case with increased political organizing, and Congress responded by creating the first real business regulatory body: the Interstate Commerce Commission.

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