10: Renaissance and Discovery

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A.P. European History - Olstad D.C. Everest High School Kagan Chapter 10

popolo gorsso

newly rich merchant class, capitalists and bankers in Florence, challenged grandi for political power

grandi

old rich nobles and merchants of Florence

popolo minuto

"little people", lower economic classes, Florence

Ciompi Revolt

-revolt of the popolo minuto
-caused by feuding between grandi and popolo gorsso, social anarchy from Black Death, collapse of Bardi and Peruzzi banking house
-resulted in four-year reign of the lower Florentine classes

Cosimo de Medici

wealthiest Florentine, controlled city internally, signeria loyal to him, head of Office of Public Debt

Lorenzo the Magnificent

grandson of Cosimo, ruled Florence in totalitarian fashion

Signoria

governing council of Florence made up of eight members, chosen from most powerful guilds

Podesta

-strongman created by dominant groups to maintain law and order
-given executive, military, and judicial authority, maintained business activities

Despot

law enforcer, job to keep normal flow of business activity

Condottieri

merchant armies obtained by the despots through military brokers

Humanism

search of truth for the sake of truth, scholary study of Latin and Greek classics and of the ancient Church Fathers, secular, opposed scholasticisim, used vernacular language

Scholasticism

rationalize the universe through the eyes of the church, researched old works and maintained traditional beliefs

Francesco Petrarch

-'father of humanism'
-one of the first writers to write in the vernacular language, created Petrarch style of sonnet
-wrote Letters to the Ancient Dead, Africa, and Lives of Illustrius Men

Dante Alighieri

Italian humanist, wrote Vita Nuava and Divine Comedy

Giovanni Boccaccio

-wrote Decameron, a social commentary and sympathetic look at human behavior
-assembled encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology

Baldassare Castlione

-wrote Book of the Courtier, a guide for nobility at the court of Urbino
-had highest ideas of Italian humanism

Platonism

flattering view of human nature, distinguishes between an eternal sphere of being and the perishable world of humans, reason belonging to the former

Christine de Pisan

-noblewoman, daughter of Charles V, married then widowed
-educated, wrote lyric poetry to support herself, became well known woman of letters
-wrote The City of Ladies

Lorenzo Valla

-humanist critic of tradition
-wrote Elegance of the Latin language (standard Renaissance text on Latin philology
-became hero to protestants, defended predestination
-said Donation of Constantine contained anachronistic terms, pointed out errors of the Latin Vulgate, still loyal to church

Leonardo da Vinci

talented painter, military engineer, did many scientific expiriments, anatomy, botanist, inventive mind
-painted Mona Lisa

Raphael

-kind, fameous for tender Madonna paintings
-painted fresco School of Athens

Michelangelo

-sculpted David, painted fresco in Cistine Chapel
-did almost everything himself, later works more complex mannerism style in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

Classical Art

-depicts people doing real tasks, emotionless, idealized and perfect, active body, nude, no sense of background
-examples: Bathing Venus, Grave Stele of Hegeso, man throwing discus

Gothic/ Medieval Art

-religious subject, flat looking figures, important figures large, fully clothed, no effort to create background, gold and red coloring, no sense of age
-examples: Madonna and Child in Magesty, Bateux Tapestry

Renaissance Art

-use themes from both of the other arts, expressions, shading, different points of light, 3D, background
-examples: Mona Lisa, Madonna and Child With Two Angels, Venus and Adonis, Pieta

Johann Guttenburg

invented printing press

Desiderius Erasmus

-'prince of humanisam'
-wrote Coloquies about good manners, wrote Adages about proverbs
-wanted to unite humanist and Christian beliefs, disliked Scholastics and their disputation overshadowing Christian practices
-wrote Philosophia Christi to summarize his beliefs
-produced Greek edition of New Testimate and translated it into Latin
-church disliked Erasmus's writings, placed them on the Index of Forbidden Books

Thomas More

humanist, Englishman, wrote Utopia, critisized temporary society, catholic, beheaded

Cortes

-Spanish warrior who came to new world, goal to find the cities of gold, found silver
-Aztecs thought Cortes and his crew were gods and welcomed them, Aztecs fell to Cortes, he exploited their people and resources

Pizarro

found Inca empire in Peru, allied with other natives against them, held Incan leader for ransom, exploited people and resources

Conquistadors

-Spanish explorers and warriors, worked natives to death, motivated by 3 G's (God Gold Glory), exploited natives and resources
-second and third born sons who didn't inherit titles

Quinto

one-fifth of all silver found in new world went to crown

Encomienda

-contract between conquistadors and Spanish crown
-certain number of natives worked for conquistadors for a certain amount of time

Repartimiento

kinder servitude for natives, every male laberor had to give certain amount of years of servitude to conquistadors

Renaissance Women

-life of most women marriage and raising children
-wealthy women married earlier and concieved earlier and more often than peasant women, hired wet nurses
-high mortality rate amongst children, women punished for having illegitimate children, some committed infanticide
-daughters had to get dowery
-rural renaissance did housework and some farmwork, only earned half as much as men
-urban renaissance women often worked trades, apprentaced and taught by their fathers, brothers, and husbands
-poor women often became servants and laberors
-some daughters joined strict convents
-noble women sometimes ruled as surrogates in absence of male heir

Witch Hunts

-women who practiced folk styles, spoke out against men or church, poor, uneducated
-accused of having pact with devil, tortured until they confessed, put to death
-100,000 or 900,000 persecuted during witch hunts

the Indies

China, India, and Indonesia, silk jewel and spice trade

Bartholomeu Dias

Portugese, sailed to Cape of Good Hope (tip of Africa)

Vasco da Gama

Portugese, sailed around Africa to reach India's west coast

Christopher Columbus

made four voyages from Spain to the Americas (mostly Carribean islands) between 1492 and 1504

Pedro Cabral

Portugese, ships blown off course, ended up in South America (Brazil), then continued to India

Ferdinand Magellan

sailed around the world, died in Indies, crew finished voyage

Machiavelli

-Florentine diplomat, military strategist, politicap philosopher, humanist
-believed Italy needed political unity, independance, and patriotism
-wrote The Prince and Discources on Livy
-believed that salvation of Italy required a cunning dictator
-held office 60 years Medicis didn't control Florence

Renaissance

northern Renaissance Christian, southern Renaissance Pagan and secular

Treaty of Lodi

brought Milan and Naples into alliance with Florence, stood against Venice and Papal states

Ludovico il Moro

Milanese despot, Naples prepared to attack Milan, Moro appealed for French aid and invited them to revive their dynastic claims to Naples, also had claims to Milan, Moro joined League of Venice against French invasion

Piero

Medici despot who lost Florence to Savonarola, tried not to be taken over by giving Florence properties away, forced into exile

Savonarola

Florentine monk, preached that the people had become to obsessed with worldly goods and that the French attack was their punishment by God, became ruler, burned Florentine art, ruled for four years, dethroned by pope, executed

Pope Alexander VI (Borgia)

corrupt, tried to secure political base in Romagna, secured French favor by abandoning League of Venice so that it was weak enough to be taken over, able to conqer Romagna

Pope Julius II

warrior pope, concerned about land, brought papacy to peak of military and diplomatic power, placed conquered land under papal jurisdiction, secular papacy, drove Venetians out of Romagna, formed Holy League with Aragon and Venice to drive out France

Concordat of Bologna

victory for French in third attempt to take Italy, gave French king control over French clergy in return for French recognition of the pope's authority

New Monarchs

division of the basic powers of government between teh king and his semi-autonomous vassals, representative assemblies evolved, nobility and clergy in decline, most powers given to king and exersized by his agents, taxes war and law became national matters, more centralized, created standing national armies, middle and lower classes taxed more, levied direct taxes on peasants

Louis XI

defeated England Empire in France and defeat fo Burgundy, Louis and Hababurg emperor Maximilian I divided Burgundy lands, Louis also inherited Angevin, doubled the size of France, expanded trade and industry, created national postal system and silk industry

Isabella and Ferdinand

united Castile and Aragon by marriage, two remained constitutionally seperate, secured their boarders, ventured abroad militarily, Christianized all of Spain, Spanish Inquisition, conquered Moors in Granada, won allegance of Hermandad, middle class gained power, Isabella sponsered Colombus

Francisco Jimenez Cisneros

Spanish humanist, served Catholic church, founded University of Alcala, printed Greek edition of New Testimant, wrote Complatension Polygot Bible

Henry VII

England, establiched stable evonomy, lowered taxes, Court of the Star Chamber, married Elizabeth of York, made peace with Scotland, rarely went to war, formed Royal Council and gave postions to middle class

Court of the Star Chamber

court for the judgement and punishment of nobles, king's councillors sat as judges, Henry used it to advantage of crown, confiscated lands and fortunes of nobles

Holy Roman Empire

territorial ruleers resisted efforts of unity, land still divided amongst all sons, princes and cities worked together to create law and order, Reichstag seven member electoral college that also functioned as administrative body, powers of emperor negotiated with every election

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