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what are the 8 parts of speech?

noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, interjection, preposition

what are the 5 parts of a sentence?

subject, predicate, subject compliment, direct object, indirect object

what are the 3 types of phrases?

verbal, prepositional, appositive

verbal that looks like -ing verbs but acts as a noun

gerund

verbal that looks like -ing, -ed, or -en verbs but act like adjectives

participle

verbal that looks like the to-form of verbs but act like nouns or modifiers (adj, n, adv)

infinitive

type of dependent clause that has NO commas and is essential to the meaning of the sentence. the word "THAT" often indicates it

essential adj clause

type of dependent clause that has commas and is unnecessary to the meaning of the sentence. the word "WHICH" often indicates it

nonessential adj clause

what are the 4 sentence structures?

simple, compound, complex, compound-complex

what is a clause?

a group of words that contains a subject and its predicate

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