Biology chapter 10 (Miller & Levine)

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cell division

process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells

asexual reproduction

The production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent

sexual reproduction

When offspring are produced by the fusion of special reproductive cells formed by each of two parents.

chromosomes

packages of DNA.

Prokaryotic Chromosomes

lack a nucleus. DNA molecules found in the cytoplasm and contain a single chromosome.

Eukarytoic Chromosomes

More DNA and contain multiple chromosomes.

Chromatin

complex of chromosome and protein.

nucleosomes

beadlike-structures formed by the DNA and histone molecules

cell cycle

when a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells.

binary fission

the division of a prokaryotic cell into two genetically identical offspring cells.

interphase

an "in-between" period of growth divided into three parts: G1, S, and G2.

G1 phase

Phase where cells increase in size and synthesize new proteins and organelles

synthesis

G1 followed by this phase. New DNA is synthesized when the chromosomes are replicated.

G2 phase

phase where many organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced.

M Phase

the phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis

mitosis

the division of the nucleus.

cytokinesis

completes the process of cell division-it splits one cell into two.

prophase

genetic material inside nucleus condenses, the duplicated chromosomes become visible, and a spindle starts to form.

centromere

area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached

chromatid

one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome

centrioles

tiny-paired structures in which spindles are attached

Metaphase

centromeres of duplicated chromosomes line up across cetner of cell, spindle fibers connect to the centromere of each chromosome to the two poles of the spindle.

anaphase

when the chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell.

telophase

chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin and nuclear envelope re-forms.

cyclin

protein that regulates the cell cycle.

growth factors

stimulate the growth and division of cells.

embryo

development stage from which the adult organism is gradually produced.

differentiation

process by which cells become specialized.

totipotent

Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of cell

blastocyst

a hollow ball of cells with a cluster of cells inside.

pluripotent

cells that can develop into most, but not all, of the body's cell types.

stem cells

the unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells devlop.

multipotent

cells that can develop into many types of differentiated cells.

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