What are the macronutrients and how much energy (kcal) are derived from each?
Carbohydrates (4), Protein (4), and Fats (9)
What is cellular respiration?
The oxidation of biomolecules to make ATP.
What is metabolism?
The sum total of all anabolic and catabolic processes in the body.
Before oxidation can occur what must happen to macronutrients?
They must be broken down to their simplest monomeric forms, absorbed, transported to the sites of cellular respiration and oxidized to Acetyl Coenzyme A (acetylCoA)
Approximately how many ATPs can be generated from 1 mol of glucose? Fat?
Approximately what percentage of energy stores is fat?
Why is energy stored as fat?
Fat is hydrophobic, if you used glucose it would absorb 4 times as much water as fat does.
What is Kwashiokor?
Protein Energy Malnutrition in which a person gets enough energy but not enough protein.
What are clinical signs of Kwashiokor?
Diffuse edema from leaky vessels due to inadequate protein and weakness.
Why is Kwashiokor called the Displaced Child Syndrome?
Translates from Ga (language of Ghana) to "The demon that comes for the first born when the second is born" Second child gets breast milk, while first is weaned.
What is Marasmus.
A Protein Energy Malnutrition where the individual is deficient in protein and energy.
What are the clinical signs of Marasmus?
Thin-wasted appearance, "skin & bones"
How might hypothyroidism present?
What condition is caused by hyperthyroidism?
Graves Disease (bug-eyed, Marty Feldmanism)
What is a cause of congenital hypothyroidism?
Decrease function of an enzyme in the thyroid results in lack of Tyrosine production which leads to mental retardation.
What are the three ketone bodies generated by the liver in the 'fasting' state?
Acetone, Acetoacetate and beta-Hydroxybutyrate
What is the only cell that cannot use TCA for energy production? Why?
Red Blood Cells, no mitochondria
What tissues are capable of beta-oxidation?
Liver, Kidneys and Muscle
What tissues are capable of ketone body formation?
Liver and Kidneys
What tissues are capapble of ketone body use?
Adipose tissue, Kidney, Muscle, and Brain
Why can't the liver or RBCs use ketone bodies?
Liver lacks the enzymes, RBCs lack mitochondria
What tissues are capapble of glycolysis?
What tissues are capapble of gluconeogenesis?
Liver and kidney
Where is the urea cycle located?
In the liver
What tissues are capapble of lipogenesis?
Liver and Adipose tissue
After about how many days of starvation does gluconeogenesis really 'kick' in?
about 2 days
What derivative of protein oxidation begins to increase in circulation after 2 days of starvation?
What are vitamins?
substances required in the diet for normal growth, maintenance and reproduction
What roles do vitamins play in the body?
Enzyme cofactors or catalysts
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
A, D, E, K
What are the water-soluble vitamins?
B and C
Can you overdose on vitamins?
Yes, leads to toxicity
For every mol of glucose that enters Glycolysis what do we get?
2 mol ATP (net), 2 mol NaDH, and 2 mol Pyruvate
In the absence of Oxygen, what happens to Pyruvate?
It enters Lactate fermantation to produce 2 mol of ATP and lactic acid.
What is the first enzyme of glycolysis in most cells? The Liver?
Where does glycolysis take place?
Where does the Krebs Cycle (TCA) take place?
The matrix of the mitochondrion
Where does the Electron Transport Chain occur?
In the cristae membrane of the mitochondrion.