This oocurs when the atoms of radioisotopes spontaneously emit subatomic particles or energy when their nucleus breaks. This process can transform one element into another.
Any molecule with a detectable substance attached.
A measure of an atom's ability to pull electrons from other atoms.
An attractive force that arises between two atoms when their electrons interact.
Forms when two or more atoms of the same or different elements join in chemical bonds.
Molecules that consist of two or more different elements in proportions that do not vary.
When two or more substances intermingle, and their proportions can vary because the substances do not bond with eachother.
A strong mutual attraction of two oppositely charged ions.
When two atoms share a pair of electrons.
Polar Covalent Bonds
Occurs when atoms participating in covalent bonds do not share electrons equally.
Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
Occurs when atoms participating in covalent bonds share electrons equally.
A weak attraction between a highly electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom taking part in a separate polar covalent bond.
A substance, usually a liquid, that can dissolve other substances.
Means that molecules resist separating from eachother.
The measure of the number of hydrogen ions in a solution.
Donate hydrogen ions as they dissolve in water.
Accept hydrogen ions.
A compound that dissolves easily in water and releases ions other than H+ and OH-.
A set of chemicals, often a weak acid or base and its salt, that can keep the pH of a solution stable.