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Clitoris

erectile tissue located within vestibule of vagina; female genitalia

Ejaculatory duct

duct formed by joining of ductus deferens and duct from seminal vesicle that allows sperm to enter urethra

Endometrium

mucus membrane lining the uterus

Epididymis

tubes that carry sperm from testes to vas deferens

Estrogen

female sex hormone secreted by ovary

Gametes

sex cells; sperm in males, ova/egg in females

Genitalia

external reproductive organs

Gonad

essential organs of reproduction; testes in males, ovaries in females

Mons pubis

skin-covered pad of fat over symphysis pubis in females

Myometrium

muscle layer of uterus

Ovaries

female gonads; produce ovum

Ovum

female sex cells

Penis

male genitalia; organ enabling sperm to enter vagina

Prostate gland

secretes fluid into semen that helps sperm maintain activity and mobility

Sperm

male sex cells

Testes

male gonads; produce sperm

Zygote

fertilized ovum after sperm enters

Progesterone

hormone stimulating development of an egg in females

Asexual reproduction

reproduction of one-celled organisms that do not produce specialized sex cells

Labium minora

"small lips" of the vulva of the vagina

Labium majora

"large lips" of the vulva of the vagina

Bartholin's gland

secretes mucus-like lubricating fluid in the vagina; located on either side of vaginal outlet

Fallopian tubes

conduct the ovum from the ovary to the uterus

Uterus

hollow, muscular organ where a fertilized egg implants and grows

Vagina

internal tube from uterus to vulva

Polar body

small, nonfunctional cell produced during meiotic divisions in the formation of female sex cells; incapable of being fertilized

Fimbriae

fingerlike projections attaching ovary to fallopian tube

Menopause

termination of menstrual cycles in the female

Scrotum

pouchlike sac that contains the testes in males

Seminal vesicle

pouchlike glands that contribute 60% of seminal fluid volume; secretions provide source of energy for sperm

Vas deferens

muscular tube that allows sperm to exit from epididymis and pass from scrotal sac into abdominal cavity

Cowper's/bulbourethral gland

secretions lubricate the terminal portion of the urethra in males; located below the prostate gland

Corpus cavernosa

two columns of erectile tissue found in the shaft of the penis

Corpus spongiosum

column of erectile tissue surrounding the urethra in the penis

Flagella

tail of the sperm allowing it to swim

Acrosome

specialized structure on the sperm containing enzymes that break down the covering of the ovum to allow entry

Midpiece

middle portion of sperm; contains mitochondria which produces energy allowing the sperm to swim

Head

top portion of sperm; contains nucleus and genetic material from the father; covered by acrosome

Perimetrium

outer layer of uterus

Glans penis

sensitive head portion of the penis

Menstrual cycle

cyclical changes in the uterine lining

Urethra

passageway for elimination of urine; in males also acts as genital duct that carries sperm to exterior

Meiosis

nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes are reduced to half their original number; produces gametes

Mitosis

indirect cell division involving complex changes in the nucleus

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