(A&P) Chapter 7: The Respiratory System

Created by brandonmcquiston 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Vital Vocabulary from "Paramedic: Anatomy and Physiology" (AAOS), Chapter 7: The Respiratory System

alveolar ducts

ducts formed from divisions if the respiratory bronchioles in the lower airway; each ducts ends in clusters known as alveoli.

alveoi

tiny sacs of lung tissue in which gas exchange takes place.

alveolocapillary membrane

the very thin membrane, consisting of only one cell layer, that lies between the alveolus and capillary, through which respiratory exchange between the alveolus and the blood vessels occurs.

asbestosis

a disease of the lungs casused by inhalation of asbestos particles.

asthma

a reversible restrictive lower airway disease.

black lung disease

a disease of the lung caused by consistent inhalation of coal dust.

bronchial arteries

arteries that branch off of the thoracic aorta and supply the lung tissues with blood.

bronchial veins

veins that return deoxygenated blood to the heart from the lungs.

bronchioles

fine subdivisions of the bronchi that give rise to the alveolar ducts.

bronchodilators

medication that is designed to improve lung function.

bronchospasm

constriction of the airway passages of the lungs that accompanies muscle spasms.

carina

the projection of the lowest portion of tracheal cartilage, at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra.

chronic bronchitis

chronic inflammatory condition affecting the bronchi that is associated with excess mucus production that results from overgrowth of the mucous glands in the airway.

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

a progressive and irreversible disease of the airway marked by decreased inspiratory and expiratory capacity of the lungs.

conchae

three bony ridges contained within the lateral walls of the nasopharynx.

diffusion

the process by which a gas dissolves in a liquid.

emphysema

destruction of the walls of the alveoli, which creates resistance to expiratory airflow.

epiglottis

the thin plate of cartilage that closes over the glottic opening during swallowing.

esophagas

the tubular organ posterior to the trachea, connecting the pharynx to the stomach.

external nares

the external openings to the nasal cavity; also called the nostrils.

forced expiratory vital capacity (FEVI)

the volume of air exhaled from the lung following a forceful exhalation.

glottis

the opening into the lower airway made up of the true vocal cords and the opening between them.

hard palate

the floor of the nasal cavity.

hilum

the point of entry for the bronchi, vessels, and nerves into the pharynx.

interior nares

the posterior opening from the nasopharynx into the pharynx.

larynx

the opening of the lower airway, which consists of several cartilaginous structures held together by ligaments.

lingula

a small portion of the left lung that is the equivalent of the middle lobe in the right lung.

lungs

the two primary organs of breathing.

mainstream bronchi

the part of the lower airway below the larynx through which air enters the lungs.

meatus

a passage located below each turbinate.

nasal septum

the structure that seperates the nasal cavity into two parts.

nasopharynx

the nasal cavity, which extends from the internal nares to the uvula.

oropharynx

the oral cavity, which extends from the uvula to the epiglottis.

parietal pleura

the pleural membrane that lines the pleural cavity.

partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)

a measurement of the amount of oxygen in the blood.

partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)

a measurement of the amount of oxygen in the blood.

pH

the measurement of acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

pharynx

the cavity formed by the posterior connection of the oropharynx and nasopharynx.

pleura

membranes of connective tissue that cover the lungs and line the inner borders of the rib cage.

pleural cavity

the cavity formed by the inner borders of the rib cage.

plearal space

a potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura.

primary respiratory acidosis

the decrease in the blood pH secondary to insufficient exhalation of CO2.

primary respiratory alkalosis

increase in the blood pH secondary to excessive exhalation of CO2.

pulmonary function tests

test that assess volumes of air that move into and out of the lungs.

residual volume

the volume of air remaining in the respiratory passages and lungs after a forceful expiration.

respiratory bronchioles

structures fromed by the final branching of the bronchioles.

respiratory center

the part of the brain located in the medulla oblongata that controls the respiratory stimulus.

respiratory system

the organs and structures associated with breathing, gas exchange, and the entrance of air into the body.

restrictive lung disease

diseases such as black lung disease and asbestosis that result in stiffening of the lungs and significantly decreased vital capacity.

secondary bronchi

airway passages in the ungs that are formed from the division of the right and left mainstream bronchi.

spirometer

a device used in pulmonary function testing that measures air leaving the lungs over a specific period of time.

tertiary bronchi

airway passages in the lungs that are formed from branching of the secondary bronchi.

tidal volume

the volume of air inspired during normal inspiration.

trachea

the structure made up of cartilage and other connective tissue that lies immediately inerior to the larynx and conveys air to the mainstream bronchi.

true vocal cords

the inferior portion of the vocal cords that vibrate to produce sound.

turbinates

a set on bony convolutions formed by the conchae in the nasopharynx that help to maintain smooth airflow.

uvula

a small fleshy mass that hangs from the soft palate.

ventilation

the process of moving air into and out of the lungs.

vestibular folds

the superior portion of the vocal cords; also called the false vocal cords.

visceral pleura

the pleural membrane that covers the lungs.

vital capacity

the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs with maximum inspiration and exhalation.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set