Why was Truman worried about the spread of communism?
1. The USSR had put communist governments in place in countries like Poland and Bulgaria.
2. Communists in Turkey and Greece were fighting civil wars to defeat their own government.
3. Britain had been helping the Greek government but could not afford to help any more.
What did Truman do?
1. In a speech in 1947, he promised to help any government that was threatened by communism.
2. This became known as the Truman Doctrine.
What did the Truman Doctrine believe?
1. the COuntries in Eastern Europe had been forced into communism by Russia.
2. It was the duty of the USA to support democratic countries under threat from communism.
3. The USA would try to contain communism.
What did this mean in practise?
1. The USA would give $400 million to support the Greek and Turkish governments.
2. This was supposed to save them from communism.
How did this turn into the Marshall Plan?
1. In June 1947 the American General George Marshall toured Europe to see how the economies were getting on.
2. He was convinced that Europe was impoverished, which mean that the people of Western Europe might turn to communism.
What was the aim of the Marshall Plan?
1. Help Europe recover from the War as quickly as possible.
2. This would mean that they would then be able to resist communism.
3. It made sense for America too because they would have a market to export goods to, too.
How was this plan received in the USA?
1. At first the US Congress hesitated, they didn't see it as America's problem to sort out the problems of the old world.
What made it change its mind?
1. In February 1948, communists organised a general strike in Czechoslovakia and occuoied the factories.
2. Next they seized power and killed the other non-communist ministers.
How did this change America's mind?
1. On 31st March 1948, Congress approved Marshall Aid.
What was Marshall Aid?
1. A fund of $15 billion to be given to countries that requested aid. The aid would be sent as machinery and fertiliser.
2. 16 countries requested aid, such as Britain and Western Germany.
3. It was laso offered to countries in Eastern Europe.
Was Marshall Aid successful?
1. Between 1948 and 1950 industrial production rose by 25%.
2. By 1952 most Western European countries werre on the way to recovery.
Did it mean that the support for the communists declined?
1 Yes, countries like France, who had big communist parties, saw their influence decline.
How did Stalin react to this?
1. If countries in Easter Europe took the aid it might make them rely on the USA and not Russia.
2. He denounced it as 'dollar inperialism'.
3. This meant that the USA was trying to dominate countries by controlling their industry and agriculture.
4. His lead to an increase in the divisions within Europe.
What did Stalin do?
1. 1947 saw the organisation of the COMINFORM. It was designed to spread communism and protect communist countries from US aggression.
Was the COMINFORM successful?
2. In 1947 the COMINFORM expelled Yugoslavia.
3. This lead the USA to believe that the USSR wanted control of the communist world and would not allow opposition.
How did the USSR seek to support the new communist countries?
1. In 1949 the USSR introduced the Molotov Plan.
2. This introduced COMECON - This linked the economies of the USSR with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania and East Germany.
How did the USA react to this?
1. They saw the COMINFORM and COMECON as a threat.
2. This lead to increased tension between the USA and the USSR.