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What was the brain processing in the toad's behavior (in class video)?

Shape, Movement, Movement x Shape, Distance

What are different levels of analysis within the brain?

-Molecular
-Cellular
-Subcellular
-Circuits
-Whole Animal

What are the four major anatomical sections of a Neuron?

-Dendrites (receiver ends)
-Cell body (a.k.a. soma, where the nucleus is)
-Axon (long process- transmission line; move information)
-Presynaptic terminal (delivering information to the nest cell)

What are 3 characteristics of an neuronal membrane?

-A double layer of phospholipids
-Channels, proteins structures, are positioned across the membrane
-The membrane is 'selectively' permeable to ions

Name and be able to draw the different types of cell morphologies:

-Unipolar cell
-Pseudo-unipolar cell
-Bipolar cell
-Multipolar cell (pyramidal cell, purkinje cell)

Describe different characteristics of Glial cells:

Glial cells:
-surround neurons
- 50 times more than neurons
-serve as supporting elements (they support the health of the whole nervous system)
-form electrical insulation (Schwann Cells)
-remove debris after injury
-buffer ions
-guide neuron growth
-have nutritive function

What are the 3 Types of Glial Cells:

-Astrocytes
-Oligodendrocytes
-Microglial cell

What are the 4 major FUNCTIONAL components of Neurons:

1. Input component
2. Integrative
3. Conductile
4. Presynaptic terminal

Extracellular space has high ____ & ____ concentrations.

Intracellular space has high ____ & ____ inside.

extracellular: high Na+ and Cl-
intracellular: high K+ and organic Anions (A-) inside

What are the two forces on ions that make them move?

-Electrostatic
-Chemical concentration gradients

____ is the only ion that can move at rest

Potassium (K+)

Why is KCl used as a lethal injection?

K will stop moving out because there is so much outside; everything stops moving.

At rest, some K+ moves across the membrane but movement of Na+ is blocked. However, a slight change in the ____ ____ opens Na+ channels

membrane voltage

Describe the sequence (4) of an action potential:

1. Sodium channels open; Na+ rushes in
2. Potassium channels open; K+ starts to leave cell
3. Sodium channels close
4. Potassium channels close

The contact (or space) between the end of one cell is called a synapse.
____ ____ forms an electrical synapse

Gap Junction (these are the fastest synapses)

The release of a neurotransmitter is called ____

Exocytosis

Describe Exocytosis:

The action potential triggers voltage gated Ca++ (Calcium) channels. Ca++ signals (Calcium) synaptic vesicles to fuse with the membrane.

Be able to describe the 7 steps of a Chemical Synapse (slide #30)

1. Action potential reaches axon terminal
2. Calcium ion channels open, allowing Ca++ (Calcium) ions in
3. Ca++ (Calcium) causes synaptic vesicles to release from microtubules
4. Synaptic vesicles fuse with axon membrane at release sites
5. Vesicles open, releasing neurotransmitters into synaptic gap
6. Vesicle material is recycled
7. Vesicles either return to neuron cell body via retrograde transport or are refilled at axon terminal

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