What was the brain processing in the toad's behavior (in class video)?
Shape, Movement, Movement x Shape, Distance
What are different levels of analysis within the brain?
What are the four major anatomical sections of a Neuron?
-Dendrites (receiver ends)
-Cell body (a.k.a. soma, where the nucleus is)
-Axon (long process- transmission line; move information)
-Presynaptic terminal (delivering information to the nest cell)
What are 3 characteristics of an neuronal membrane?
-A double layer of phospholipids
-Channels, proteins structures, are positioned across the membrane
-The membrane is 'selectively' permeable to ions
Name and be able to draw the different types of cell morphologies:
-Multipolar cell (pyramidal cell, purkinje cell)
Describe different characteristics of Glial cells:
- 50 times more than neurons
-serve as supporting elements (they support the health of the whole nervous system)
-form electrical insulation (Schwann Cells)
-remove debris after injury
-guide neuron growth
-have nutritive function
What are the 3 Types of Glial Cells:
What are the 4 major FUNCTIONAL components of Neurons:
1. Input component
4. Presynaptic terminal
Extracellular space has high ____ & ____ concentrations.
Intracellular space has high ____ & ____ inside.
extracellular: high Na+ and Cl-
intracellular: high K+ and organic Anions (A-) inside
What are the two forces on ions that make them move?
-Chemical concentration gradients
____ is the only ion that can move at rest
Why is KCl used as a lethal injection?
K will stop moving out because there is so much outside; everything stops moving.
At rest, some K+ moves across the membrane but movement of Na+ is blocked. However, a slight change in the ____ ____ opens Na+ channels
Describe the sequence (4) of an action potential:
1. Sodium channels open; Na+ rushes in
2. Potassium channels open; K+ starts to leave cell
3. Sodium channels close
4. Potassium channels close
The contact (or space) between the end of one cell is called a synapse.
____ ____ forms an electrical synapse
Gap Junction (these are the fastest synapses)
The release of a neurotransmitter is called ____
The action potential triggers voltage gated Ca++ (Calcium) channels. Ca++ signals (Calcium) synaptic vesicles to fuse with the membrane.
Be able to describe the 7 steps of a Chemical Synapse (slide #30)
1. Action potential reaches axon terminal
2. Calcium ion channels open, allowing Ca++ (Calcium) ions in
3. Ca++ (Calcium) causes synaptic vesicles to release from microtubules
4. Synaptic vesicles fuse with axon membrane at release sites
5. Vesicles open, releasing neurotransmitters into synaptic gap
6. Vesicle material is recycled
7. Vesicles either return to neuron cell body via retrograde transport or are refilled at axon terminal